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How to make value stream mapping?

3 Answer(s) Available
Answer # 1 #
  • Identify the product or service you want to map.
  • Draw your current value stream map.
  • Assess your current value stream.
  • Create a "future state" value stream map.
  • Create a plan to implement the desired state.
  • Implement the plan.
  • Review and repeat.
Sohrab Liboiron
Answer # 2 #

Value stream mappingWhat is a Value Stream Map? Six Sigma's Value Stream Map is ... Learn More... is a method of illustrating, analyzing, and improving the steps necessary to deliver a product/service. VSMWhat is a Value Stream Map? Six Sigma's Value Stream Map is ... Learn More... is a key component of leanLEAN Definition LEAN is a production method aimed primarily ... Learn More... methodology. It examines the flow of information and steps from the origin to the delivery to the customer. It uses symbols, just like other types of flowcharts to show various work activities and information flows. VSM is particularly useful for eliminating wasteMuda (無駄, on'yomi reading) is a ... Learn More.... The purpose of VSM is to identify and eliminate waste. Items are categorized as adding or subtracting value based on the customer’s perspective.

Customers, internal or external, only care about the service or product’s value to them. This includes the effort it took to create it or any potential value it may have for other customers. This is what value stream mapping does. One common processThere are many ways to organize your lean six sigma processe... is to first draw the current state VSM, then model it in a better manner with a future or ideal state VSM. Sketching can be done by hand, but VSM software is available for collaboration, analysis, and communication.

As lean production methods were being spread to other industries and the United States in the 1990s, the term “value stream map” was becoming more common. VSM became a central part of lean methodology in many areas. Six SigmaSix Sigma Definition: Six Sigma is a set of techniques and t... Learn More... also uses value stream mapping. Both Six Sigma and Lean have the same goal, which is to eliminate waste and create an efficient system. They identify waste in a unique way. Six Sigma practitioners are more focused on the non-value-addedIn Six Sigma, Non-Value-Added (NVA) activities are activitie... Learn More... activities of lean, while Six Sigma followers pay more attention to process variations that lead to waste. Both have been successful in different situations which led to Lean Six SigmaSix Sigma Definition: Six Sigma is a set of techniques and t... Learn More..., a combination of both.

Value stream mapping can be used to identify waste in any process. This is its core purpose. Each step of a significant process is described and evaluated from the perspective of the customer to determine if it adds or subtracts value. This focuses on value, which allows the company to be competitive in the market. VSM can be used by lean practitioners to anticipate or face any competitive threat and produce the highest value for customers in the most efficient manner possible. It should be used continuously for continuous improvementContinuous improvement (or Kaizen) is a way to identify oppo... Learn More... and to bring better and more efficient process steps online. VSM allows you not only to see the waste but also the source and cause.

As with all good visualizations, value stream mapping is a powerful tool for communication, collaboration, and even culture shift. Decision-makers can see the current process state and identify areas where waste is occurring. They can spot problems such as process delays, excessive downtime, and inventoryMuda (無駄, on'yomi reading) is a ... Learn More... issues. They can also see how to improve with the Future State or Ideal State VSM.

Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is not only used to eliminate waste but can also be used to add value. This is what the customer really cares about. The goal of creating value is to eliminate waste. Value is what a customer will pay for.

VSM symbols can be found in many places. However, they all fall under the following four categories: material, process, information, and general. Although the symbols may be complex, some simply suggest their meanings in a layman’s sense. For example, a truck icon to indicate external shipments or eyeglasses to indicate something to see.

Some common Value Stream Mapping (VSM) symbols:

The “value stream” is a term used to describe the entire process of bringing a product or service to market. It includes all actions that are required to get it from the idea or raw material to the finished product. Each action adds value to the final product. It is best to work together efficiently to create a continuous stream of value. Analyzing the value stream is the first step to creating a lean environment. This includes increasing value and eliminating waste. This is the basis for creating an improvement program. It is possible to identify opportunities for improvement by separating actions that contribute to value creation from those that make waste.

Value stream mapping simplifies complex systems into a map, which supports stream analysis. This map shows the results of the value stream analysis and provides a visual tool for communication and understanding. Next, we will outline the steps required to complete a value stream analysis. This includes creating a current map, future, and ideal state maps and finally executing a lean plan. These are the best practices in VSM. They link organizations to value stream analysis and help to create a material and information flow system that is efficient and integrated.

Value stream mapping is becoming more popular in knowledge work, as it allows teams working in siloed environments to visualize their work and work better together.

Individual contributors can get a view of the progress of the team from a bird’s eye perspective.

This can help reduce wait times by increasing the efficiency of work handoffs. WaitingMuda (無駄, on'yomi reading) is a ... Learn More... is one of the wastesMuda (無駄, on'yomi reading) is a ... Learn More... of Lean. Therefore, it should be everyone’s priority to reduce it.

You can map your process to see where handoffs take place. This will allow you to identify bottlenecks in your process and devise a plan to reduce their impact on your team’s productivity.

There are many terms and features in a VSM that can be confusing. While we will explain some of the standard VSM features, it is possible to modify them to meet specific goals.

The frequency of features/units produced, or the averageA synonym for “mean”: the sum of a set of values divided... Learn More... time it takes between one completed unit/feature and the next? Using our scenario of feature development for an enterprise software solution, the cycle timeThe cycle time is the time it takes to produce an item or pr... Learn More... is the average amount of time it takes from the completion/deployment of one feature request to the completion/deployment of the next.

This is the time taken to prepare for a step. This can be used to indicate, depending on the step (application to software development), how much time is needed to fully understand the requestor to set up, spin up or allocate a test environment.

This gives you an indication of how much time the systems or processes are in use. This can be used to show the system uptime and employee availability times in our example.

This is the time it takes for one feature request to go through the entire development process from concept to delivery.

This term is often used in value stream mapping. It is the time required to produce products at a rate that meets customer demand. Figure 2 illustrates how taktTAKT Time Definition Takt time, or simply Takt, is a manufac... Learn More... is calculated and applied.

Kaizen Blitz is also known as a team activity that focuses on solving specific problems. It lasts for 3-5 days. The purpose of the mapping activity was to plan and identify the problem. A Kaizen burst aims to solve the problem. You can use it to resolve issues that aren’t getting resolved as quickly or as planned. It is designed to help a team focus their energy and resources on a specific problem, process, or activity to remove or reduce waste or implement a solution. Kaizen burst can be a valuable component of performance management. It helps to overcome barriers and find solutions to help you get to the next levelStatistics level A statistics level is the value of input in... Learn More... in your value stream performance.

The product flow illustrates how the material moves through the process. How does the finished product, whether it is purchased components or raw materials, become a finished product that can be sold to customers?

Information flows govern the product flow. This document explains how the process is managed.

Customers are the first thing you should draw on your value stream mapWhat is a Value Stream Map? Six Sigma's Value Stream Map is ... Learn More.... Start value stream maps in the shipping area, and move upstream. Include a data box that shows the customer’s demands in addition to the customer symbol drawn on the map. This data can be used to calculate Takt timeTAKT Time Definition Takt time, or simply Takt, is a manufac... Learn More.... This gives the company an indication of how frequently they must produce units to meet customer demand. This is important in relation to the cycle times for the products. If the Takt time is longer than the cycle time, it means that there is a bottleneck or constraint to be addressed.

Next, draw the suppliers. You don’t have to include every supplier on the map. Sometimes, it’s more efficient to include just one type of supplier. You could do this by geographic region (e.g., capture all of the Asian, European, and American suppliers) to cover at least the main flow routes of inbound material.

One of the most powerful tools in the Lean Toolbox is the Value Stream Map. In a brief time (usually less than an hour) you can effectively communicate where the focus of your Continuous Improvement efforts will have the most effectIt's the change in the average value of the output caused by... Learn More....

The Value Stream Map is full of pictures and friendly symbols which make it a simple tool to understand and develop.

Below is an example of a Value Stream Map for a Printing and Binding Operation

The first step to developing a Value Stream Map is to understand the concept of “value-adding activities”. There are three criteria for Value-Adding Activities:

Any activity that exists outside of these three criteria is considered “Waste”.

Once we understand and define value for the organization and we understand the focus, we now start to develop the VSM.

I have worked with hundreds of teams and have found that developing a Value Stream Map manually with Post It notes and flip charts works best.

The video below is from a pre-recorded online training “Basics of the Value Stream Map” course. If you want to watch the course without the promotions skip to 8 minutes and 20 seconds (8:20). The course is around 40 minutes long. If you would like to take the online Value Stream Mapping course, CLICK HERE.

Before we learn how to define our focus, let’s correct a misunderstanding that I see in many teams when developing a Value Stream Map.

A Value Stream Map is not a process flowchart. What I mean by this is that a Value Stream Map does not track all paths that the process can take.

A Value Stream Map tracks one part, service, or transaction or a family of parts, services, or transactions through the process. We only track one path of the “value stream”.

To define our focus, we can use a tool like a Product Family Matrix to help us understand which of the products or family of products has the “biggest bang for the buck”.

Value Stream Map example: An example of the Product Family Matrix

When choosing the product or product family to map, consider:

Once we understand and define value for the organization and we understand the focus, we now start to develop the VSM.

I have worked with hundreds of teams and have found that developing a Value Stream Map manually with Post It notes and flip charts works best.

I see lots of teams draw a VSM in a room far removed from the process that they are trying to improve. Worse, they try and develop a VSM from reports and SME accounts without ever experiencing the process themselves.

Go to Gemba! Draw the Ohno Circle! Get a notepad, take notes, and watch the process unfold in front of you.

Develop the VSM somewhere that the team has quick and easy access to the process. Optimally you will be in the process.

The most difficult part of drawing a VSM is not turning it into a flowchart where we track all the different paths of the process. There is a trick to avoiding that mistake… Start from the end of the process and work backward.

When you start from the end customer and work backward, you have no choice but to track that “one thing”.

From the data that we have collected from “going to Gemba” and SMEs, we define the basic steps in the value stream

After we define the basic steps in the value stream then we fill in the Waiting (Queue) Times between each process.

In most VSMs, the focus is on the Process Cycle Time. Separate the cycle times between NVAIn Six Sigma, Non-Value-Added (NVA) activities are activitie... Learn More... time and VAThe Lean Six Sigma value-added is a crucial part of lean thi... Learn More... time. Recall our discussion in Step #1 to define what is considered to be a Value AddedAn activity that adds value to a product or business process... Learn More... Step (VA).

Enter all pertinent process data in Boxes beneath each main process step box (from step #5).

Examples of Process Data:

Enter any data that you and the team have defined as important to the process.

It is important to understand the amount of capacityCapacity refers to the maximum amount of work, output, or a ... Learn More... in labor at each process. When developing the VSM, you might see that a bottleneck exists because of an imbalance in labor.

Add a smiley face over each process box to define the number of laborers that we were in the process when the value stream was captured.

Add up all the data in the VA section and divide it by the total process cycle time (the time it takes for the product or product family to travel through the entire value stream)

Convert the resulting number to a percentage (%) by multiplying by 100. This will give you the Percentage of Value Added activities or %VA.

The VSM should now be a very pictorial view of the process and what has happened to that product or family of products.

The VSM should help build a roadmap for continuous improvement projects to get your process to the desired state.

Your team and you should be following the entire value stream. Do not rely on assumptions, impressions, or conversations about “normal” things. If the thing is physical, you can walk it and use a stopwatch for timing various steps. You will be able to experience it as closely as possible. At least one member of the team must walk the entire stream. You will lose the essential perspective of VSM if you rely on sub-teams for walking different sections.

Begin by drawing in pencil. Then, you can document your steps. You can later use chart-drawing software for better communication and collaboration and to map out the future/ideal state.

It might be helpful to start by taking a short walk around the area, then go back and do it in greater detail. Do it in reverse from the product or service back to the origins? This perspective could make many items more meaningful and clearer.

It’s also known as the Five Whys in Lean Six Sigma. It is simply asking why something is done the way it is. The answer is followed by another question. Continue this process until you get to the final basis of the action.

One of the most powerful tools in the Lean Toolbox is the Value Stream Map. In a brief time (usually less than an hour) you can effectively communicate where the focus of your Continuous Improvement efforts will have the most effect.

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Answer # 3 #

But then you realize a key part of Lean methodology involves value stream mapping. You look at one example, and you’re not even sure where you’d begin recreating this diagram for your own process. If you find yourself stuck in the situation above or you just want to find out more, use this guide to learn about the value stream map process.

A value stream map (VSM) is a flowchart that illustrates and analyzes the steps involved in producing a product or delivering a service. Once someone maps the current state of the process from beginning to end, he or she should find areas that do not add value to the process and reduce those areas.

Value stream mapping started with Lean methodology because it is a powerful way to visualize the key objectives of Lean methodology: to control all waste, including overproduction, defective parts, and transportation of people and products.

This article will focus on creating the actual VSM, but you need to spend time observing your company process before you can visualize it. Keep these tips in mind as you perform value stream analysis:

Dive deep with our guide on value stream mapping to learn more about this methodology and when to use it.

Understand how to walk through your process and gather the data you need? Great. Let’s talk about how to do a value stream map and start analyzing your process.

We’ll break down the entire process, but here are the basic steps of value stream mapping:

Note: If you’re using Lucidchart to complete your diagram, make sure to use our value stream map template or add our value stream shape library. Just click “More Shapes” at the bottom of the editor and check the “Value Stream” box.

Create your start and end points first, and place them in the top left and right corners of your document. If you cover the entire supply chain, you will likely start with the supplier/raw materials and end with the customer. Use the pointed shape (found on Lucidchart in our Processes library) to represent these points.

Next to the customer, you’ll record your takt time, or the maximum amount of time you can spend while still satisfying customer demand. To calculate this number, take the available minutes for production and divide it by the required units of production.

Add process boxes (using the Dedicated Process shape under “Processes” in Lucidchart) to show all the steps involved. In the corner of each process box, a small circle indicates how many operators complete this step in the process. The example below shows only one person toasting bread, one person applying tuna, and one person packaging the sandwich.

Below each process box, include a data box for your analysis (using the Other Information shape under “Information” in Lucidchart). These boxes can include, but are certainly not limited to, the following data:

Now connect your start/end points and process boxes with arrows to show the entire process flow. In Lucidchart, the “Arrows” shape library contains all the types you need. The thick solid lines represent shipments; in this case, the supplier ships raw materials to the factory and then the factory ships the finished sandwiches out to customers. The dotted arrows, also called push arrows, represent material pushed from one process to the next.

In between each stage, use an inventory triangle (found under “Materials” in Lucidchart) to mark the number of parts you have in WIP (work in progress) at the end of each step. On the shipment arrows, you can also add truck symbols, airplane symbols, or other equipment symbols to show the method of transportation.

Value stream maps not only show the production process, but they also display the flow of information throughout that process. Add a production control box to represent the people scheduling and controlling production. You can find this shape under “Information” in Lucidchart, and most people place it between the start and end points. In the second half of that box, you can add this group’s responsibilities.

Then place lines of communication. Jagged lines show electronic communication, such as email, phone, or fax. You can add notes about the type of data exchanged, the frequency of this exchange, or the media used. Straight lines show manual communication, such as memos, printed reports, or in-person conversations. Add conditional formatting rules to automatically updates shapes and lines when your process is changed to accurately monitor your information flow.

In this example, production control receives orders from the customer and sends weekly forecasts to the supplier electronically, but they give daily schedules to the production staff in person.

Finally, you should create a timeline at the bottom of your value stream map. Because value stream maps aim to detect waste in a process, the timeline is perhaps the most essential piece.

The timeline (which you can find under the “Value Stream Map” library in Lucidchart and extend as long as you need to) has two levels. On the bottom, you’ll write down the times for value-added processes, taken from the data boxes above. On top, you’ll write down the times for non-value-added processes. Use formulas in Lucidchart to help you calculate the time accurately and monitor efficiency. In our example, we calculated the non-value-added times by the inventory we recorded to account for overproduction. Because the customer demands 800 sandwiches per day, 800 pieces count as 1 day of non-value-added time.

The timeline also includes a data box to the right that combines all this information. It commonly houses the following information:

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