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Björn Shada

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Probate is a general term which is normally used to describe the legal and financial processes involved in dealing with the property, money and possessions (ie the ‘estate’) of a person who has died.

There are three variants:


This is where the deceased left a Will, which named executors (ie individuals who they wish to administer their estate). Only the executor named in the deceased’s Will can apply for probate to administer their estate. Our recent blog explains what your responsibilities are and also whether you need to act.


This is where the deceased left a Will which either did not name executors or none of the executors are able to apply for probate.  There are specific rules about who can apply for the letters of administration in this situation. This is generally the person who is the main beneficiary of the Will and they are known as ‘administrators’ but have to some extent the same responsibilities as executors.


This is where the deceased did not leave a Will. If someone dies without a Will, they are said to be intestate. The intestacy rules will say who can apply to administer the estate instead. There is a specific order of who can apply in such a situation; spouse, children, parents, siblings, aunts and uncles. Similar to above, the individual who takes out the letters of administration is known as the ‘administrator’.

How do I 'get' probate?

We have already blogged about what to do when someone dies in terms of the practical next steps to take, but what happens next? The process of applying for probate is relatively straightforward. The steps are:


The first stage in the process will be an information gathering exercise to identify and value all of the deceased’s assets and to report it to HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC).

This will involve identifying the deceased’s assets and debts and estimating the gross value of the estate. The estimate is based on date of death valuations.


There are two main IHT documents that need to be completed:

i.  An IHT400. The IHT400 is a lengthy document (with schedules) which sets out the assets and liabilities. This will include things such as bank accounts, personal items, property held, and expenses such as funeral costs. The executors/administrators will need to sign the IHT400. In some circumstances, a shorter IHT form can be used which is an IHT205. If the deceased had their permanent home abroad, and their assets in the UK consisted of cash or quoted shares only, which was less than £150,000 (gross), form IHT207 can be used.

ii. An IHT421. This is a probate summary of the IHT400 and confirms to HMRC whether IHT is payable or not. HMRC will stamp the IHT421 and return it and either you or your solicitor should submit it to the Probate Registry.


IHT will need to be paid before the Grant/Letters of Administration will be issued and therefore before it has been possible to draw in all the assets of the estate.

There are various ways to pay the IHT due on an estate, including paying on account from your account, from the deceased’s account or paying in instalments. You should consider the best option depending on your circumstances and the assets.

It is important to ensure that IHT is paid no later than six months from the end of the month in which the deceased died. Interest will be charged on unpaid tax after that date.


In order to apply for probate, the following documents need to be provided to the Probate Registry:

If the original Will cannot be located, an affidavit which sets out the circumstances in which the Will has been lost will need to be prepared and signed by the appropriate person.

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What is iht 421?


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Before we jump to the tutorials for a high-quality 1:1 conversion, little background knowledge on MXF and container format will be helpful.

A container is like a box inside which you can put video stream, audio stream, metadata and subtitles if supported. Converting MXF to MP4 is like swapping the box from MXF to MP4, and re-encoding the media stream when needed.

With professional converters, you can rest assured for the MXF to be changed into MP4, at high quality, with audio and subtitles preserved.

The easiest way to convert MXF to MP4, while maintaining the original quality is using VideoProc Converter. It is a dedicated Video Processing tool developed by Digiarty, Inc., a leading tech company focusing on multimedia solutions.

VideoProc Converter supports 370+ formats, popular or rare, and can remux or transcode them into the format you want: MP4, MOV, MKV, encoded in HEVC, H264, ProRes, etc.

Follow the steps below to change MXF to MP4:

Step 1. Download and install VideoProc Converter for Windows or for Mac.

Step 2. Go to Video from the main interface, and import the MFX video.

Pro Tips :

1. About frame rate: Depending on the recording device and settings, MXF videos can be recorded with different frame rate, such as 59.94i, 23.98p, 29.97p, 25p, 59.94p, 59.94i, 50i, etc. Using VideoProc Converter, in codec settings (gear icon), you have options to keep the original frame rate, or convert it to popular FPS for YouTube and other platforms.

2. About Interlaced MXF videos: Some MXF videos are recorded as interlaced videos. When playing back on a modern-day device, there will be unsightly lines. You can tick the Deinterlace option in VideoProc Converter upon conversion.

Step 3. Select MP4 as the output format.

Depending on different usage, you can use the presets in VideoProc Converter. They are pre-configured for various situations using the most suitable parameters.

Step 4. Hit RUN to convert MXF to MP4.

Watch Video Tutorial to Convert MXF to MP4

If you have a single MXF sample file, small in size, and you cannot open the MXF on Mac or Windows, online converters are good choices. These tools usually have file size limitations, thus less desirable for large MXF files from recorders and camcorders.

The best 4 MXF online converters are as follows:

CloudConvert is an online converter for video, audio, image and document conversion. It is founded by Lunaweb GmbH, located in Germany. CloudConvert started its operation in 2012, with online converting tools catering for end users and corporate customers.

Convert MXF to MP4 Using CloudConvert

Step 1. Visit and import your MXF file.

Step 2. Select MP4 as the output format from the drop-down menu.

Step 3. Click the wrench icon to manage transcoding settings.

Step 4. Click Convert to change MXF to MP4.

The online converter will start to upload your MXF file to the server, converting it over the cloud, and providing you an MP4 file ready to download.

Cloudconvert allows for 25 conversions every day, and the file size is limited to 1GB per file. If your file is larger than 1GB, you need a package or subscription, starting from $9 with 500 conversions per day. Else you will see a "File Too Large" error.

Convertio is another trust-worthy MXF to MP4 converter online. It supports 300+ types of files for conversion, and is used by more than 10 million users worldwide. Convertio also has a Chrome extension to convert files from one format into another.

Convert MXF to MP4 Using Convertio

Step 1. Visit and drag-n-drop the MXF file into the browser.

Step 2. Enter MP4 as the format to convert to.

Step 3. Click the gear icon if you want to manage detailed settings.

You can use video codec such as H.264, H.265, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, VP9 and XVID in Convertio.

Step 4. Click Convert or save the output file to DropBox or Google Drive.

For free accounts, convertio allows for a maximum of 100MB file size. For paid users, there are plans of $9.99 for 500MB, $14.99 for 1GB, $25.99 for unlimited file size. Based on your MXF file size, you can choose plans accordingly, or use other video converters listed in this article.

FreeFileConvert online tool has been around since 2008, supporting 8000+ types of media files and documents. It remains free to use since day one, and allows users to convert 5 files every time, with a combined size up to 300MB. If your MXF file is smaller than that, you can use FreeFileConvert to change MXF to MP4.

The steps are the same as using other online conversion tools, except that this tool doesn't have codec settings. Based on our test, it uses MPEG-4 as the video codec for MP4 output. Another thing to notice is, the uploaded files must be of the same extension for every batch task. For instance, you cannot upload MXF and MOV at the same time for MP4 conversion in a batch.

After conversion, you can delete the video file from its server.

Like FreeFileConvert, the OnlineConvert tool also uses MPEG-4 for the video stream in MXF to MP4 conversion. You can upload the MXF file from the local drive to its server, or import the file from DropBox or Google Drive.

Before starting the conversion, you can set parameters for the output video, such as video bitrate, frame rate, audio channel, etc. You can also opt to crop, rotate or flip the video upon transcoding.

OnlineConvert supports 100MB file size per time, if your MXF file is larger than that, you will be directed to an upgrade page, plans are starting from $7.99 for 1GB. Compared to other converters, the plan is less competitive if you only want to transcode MXF to MP4. If you also have other file types to convert, such as digital books or PDF, the plan could be a bargain then.

If you happen to have VLC installed on your computer as the media player, you can use it as a converter to change .mxf to MP4 video file. This free open-source player has a transcoding option hidden in the menu, follow the tutorial below:

Step 1. Launch VLC and go to menu > Media > Convert/Save.

The shortcut for the Convert/Save Window is Ctrl+R.

Step 2. Add the MXF file from your local disk by clicking the Add button, and click Open.

Step 3. In the bottom right corner, select Convert (shortcut Alt+O) from the dropdown menu.

Step 4. In the Profile section, choose Video - H.264 + MP3 (MP4).

Step 5. Designate a destination folder for the output video.

Step 6. Click Start to convert MXF file to MP4.

VLC works nicely for most of the time with common files. However, since video streams and other data wrapped in the MXF file can be very different, errors may crop up from time to time.

There are users complaining VLC doesn't support the Closed Captioning in MXF, or the audio is choppy or missing after conversion, or the video goes black.

If changing video output preferences to Direct3d or OpenGL cannot fix certain errors, you can follow the tutorial in part 1 and use the professional video converter to better handle MXF conversion.

Although Adobe Premiere and After Effects support MXF officially, there are MXF files importing errors from time to time. If you are searching methods to transcode MXF to MP4 for video editing in Premiere Pro CC, CS6, CS5, etc, you can use Adobe Media Encoder.

Manually Convert MXF to MP4 by Adding Files to the Queue

Step 1. Launch Adobe Media Encoder, and add the MXF video by clicking + in the top left corner.

Step 2. Choose the video from your local folder, and add it to the queue.

Step 3. Select MP4 as the export preset for the video.

Step 4. Select an output folder location.

You can repeat Step 3-4 to add multiple video files to the queue.

Step 5. Click the Green Play icon to start conversion.

Automatically Convert MXF to MP4 with Watch Folder in Media Encoder

If you have lots of MXF files to deal with from day to day, you can create a watch folder. As its name suggests, this watch folder basically watches out whenever you add a file into it, and executes the conversion or any task predesignated by you.

For instance, you can create a folder on the desktop, set it as a watch folder in Media Encoder, and designate the output format as MP4. Whenever you add new video files into that folder on the desktop (MXF files for this case), Media Encoder can detect it and add it to the queue for the MXF to MP4 conversion.

Step 1. Create a watch folder in Media Encoder.

The watch folder panel is at the bottom right section of the main screen.

Click the + icon to select a folder from your Mac/Windows computer as the watch folder. You can also create a new folder on your computer, and designate it as the watch folder.

Step 2. Choose the desired codec and preset for the output video.

In this case, use MPEG-4 or H264 for MP4 video. For presets, choose one that is suitable for your situation. For instance, you can choose YouTube 1080p if your source video is 1080p, and you intend to upload the video to YouTube after conversion.

You can add multiple presets for the watch folder. If you do so, Media Encoder will output the video into several versions as defined by the presets.

Step 3. Add MXF video to the watch folder, and you shall see it appears in the queue in the top right corner.

Step 4. Click the Green Play button to start conversion.

If the MXF file on your computer is displayed as an unknown file type, don't worry, it is simply a video file that can be opened by media players, video converters, or certain video editing software.

If you want to playback the MXF file, you can use the VLC media player to open it. For maximum compatibility, you can use VideoProc Converter to open it and convert the MXF file to MP4.

iMovie doesn't support MXF files well. Some Sony users complain that iMovie won't import the MXF file from the camcorder, or the audio is missing. To edit an MXF file in iMovie efficiently, you can use VideoProc Converter to convert MXF to MP4, or better still, remux the MXF to ProRes, which is an editing-friendly codec.

Currently, YouTube doesn't support MXF format for uploading. You will encounter uploading error if you video stream is wrapped inside the .mxf container. The best solution is to convert MXF to MP4, as the latter is the most compatible format for YouTube.

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How to turn mxf to mp4?


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