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Micheline Crook

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Intrauterine device insertion is an outpatient procedure that should be performed by trained healthcare professionals. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are an effective and increasingly popular form of reversible contraception. The increase in popularity has been attributed to their efficacy, ease of reversibility, and patient satisfaction, with minimal effort required for long-term use. IUDs are equivalent to tubal sterilization at preventing pregnancy; in addition to vasectomy, they are the most cost-effective method of long-term contraception available in the United States. The IUDs currently available in the United States include the copper T380A IUD (Paraguard) and 2 levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (Mirena and Skyla).

The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed guidelines for practitioners regarding IUD use in a variety of clinical circumstances. IUDs are considered appropriate for the majority of women, including nulliparous women and adolescents. Both immediate postpartum insertion (within 10 minutes of placental delivery) and delayed postpartum insertion (within 4 weeks of placental delivery) are acceptable. Similarly, postabortion (spontaneous or elective) insertion is acceptable.

IUD use is safe in women with the following conditions:

Also, women with a history of sexually transmitted infections or a history of pelvic inflammatory disease may safely use an IUD, provided they have been treated and a test of cure has been obtained. .

Absolute contraindications for IUD use include the following:

Ongoing pelvic infections (eg, pelvic inflammatory disease, untreated cervicitis, puerperal sepsis, immediate postabortion or postpartum infection, endomyometritis, pelvic tuberculosis) are also absolute contraindications for IUD placement. In women with these infections, placement should be deferred for 3 months after treatment and a physical examination should be performed prior to insertion to exclude any evidence of persistent infection.

In general, women with a new diagnosis of cervical cancer should not receive IUDs. Although the World Health Organization and the CDC do not recommend the use of IUDs in women with a new diagnosis of endometrial cancer, there are observational studies and case reports suggesting that the 52 mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) may be an acceptable alternative for treatment in women who strongly desire fertility.

The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems are contraindicated in women with a history of breast cancer or in women with a benign or malignant liver tumor.

The copper T380A IUD is contraindicated in women with a known copper allergy or in women with Wilson disease.

Complications from IUD placement are relatively rare. The most common complication is IUD expulsion, which occurs in approximately 2-10% of cases. Patients should be encouraged to feel for their IUD strings on a regular basis at home to ensure correct placement. Placement in the immediate postpartum period is associated with a higher expulsion rate than delayed postpartum insertion. Similarly, insertion immediately following first and second trimester spontaneous or elective abortion is also associated with a higher expulsion rate than delayed insertion. There are, however, numerous advantages to postprocedural and postpartum insertion, which may outweigh the risk of expulsion (see Timing of Insertion).

Method failure is an exceedingly uncommon complication of IUD use. The 52-mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) has a failure rate of 0.2% in the first year of use. The 13.5-mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Skyla) has a failure rate of 0.4% in the first year of use. The copper T380A IUD has a 1-year failure rate of 0.8%. When pregnancy does occur following IUD placement, the pregnancy is more likely to be ectopic. The World Health Organization and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration both recommend IUD removal if pregnancy occurs. Pregnancies that persist with an IUD in place are associated with high risk of complications, including spontaneous abortion and septic abortion.

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how to insert iud?


Kuala Kedah Jetty is only located 25 minutes away by car from Alor Setar, the capital of Kedah. Besides getting to Langkawi from Penang and Kuala Perlis, one of the popular ways to go to Langkawi is from Kuala Kedah Jetty. The interval between each ferry usually takes a maximum of an hour gap and the ferry schedule may occur some changes depending on the season and demand.

Popular route from Kuala Kedah Jetty

Cheaper alternative to get to Kuala Kedah Jetty from Alor Setar bus terminal is by using the bus service that offers local routes around Alor Setar which include a stop in front of Kuala Kedah Jetty.

Getting to Kuala Kedah Jetty from other states of Malaysia can also be done by applying the same train and bus services, depends on the point of departure going to Alor Setar. The locals in Kedah usually get around by taxi, bus or driving personal car to Kuala Kedah Jetty where parking spaces are provided at the jetty.

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How to go langkawi by ferry?


West Lakes Beach

Address: Semaphore Park SA 5019, Australia

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Could you suggest best boat ramps in Adelaide, Australia?


For all intensive purposes, no Scarlet Witch's powers come from altering reality around herself As far as I know, science doesn't currently have any ways

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How to become scarlet witch?


Compression stockings are used after surgery to prevent blood clots developing in the leg , which is known as deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

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Why do you wear stockings in hospital?