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Fabianne Harpster

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The pass lets you travel for free during off-peak times:

If you live in the West Midlands, you can use your pass on the buses from 9.30am until 11.59pm. You can also get free travel on:

If you want to travel before 9.30am, you can get a £1 single fare on National Express West Midlands buses. Show your travel pass to the driver and ask for a £1 single ticket.

If you often travel before 9.30am, you can get a pre-9.30 add-on ticket. Use our ticket finder to find pre-9.30 add-on tickets.

You can also use your travel pass as a pay as you go card. This means you can use it to pay for:

To use your travel pass as a pay-as-you-go card, you need to either:

You can find out if you've reached the age for free bus travel on the GOV.UK website.

You can get a West Midlands older person's travel pass if you live in the West Midlands. You must live at a property where council tax is paid to one of these councils:

If you do not live in the West Midlands, contact your local authority to apply.

You can either:

If you apply through the post, send your application to the address on the form.

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When to apply for oap bus pass?


You pair your wetsuit up with a pair of gloves and a pair of socks Gloves will protect your hands from fish spikes, keep your hands warm And

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Spearfishing what you need?


A three-minute display on the Burj Khalifa starts at AED250,000 but these rates can differ depending on whether the ad is displayed on the weekdays or weekends,

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Burj khalifa advertisement cost in dollars?


Think of exfoliation as the deep-cleaning aspect of your skin-care routine. Your daily cleanser helps rid the skin of the makeup, oil, and surface-level dirt that accumulate over the course of the day, while an exfoliator really gets in there and sloughs away dead skin cells that have piled up over time. “Exfoliating helps buff away dead skin cells and leaves skin looking smoother and more radiant,” says Patricia Farris, MD, a New Orleans–based board-certified dermatologist with Sanova Dermatology.

That’s not all — exfoliating can also make creams and serums soak in more effectively, Dr. Farris says. Once that top layer of skin is removed, the products will be able to penetrate the skin more deeply, which over time can give the skin a youthful glow, according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD).

RELATED: The Skin-Care Glossary Every Woman Needs

There are two types of exfoliators: physical exfoliators and chemical exfoliators. They both get the job done, but they go about it in different ways.

Physical exfoliators work by physically removing the cells with visible scrubbing agents. “Physical exfoliators contain finely ground grains or nuts that when rubbed on the skin help remove dead skin cells,” Farris says. You might exfoliate with these using a cleansing brush, a mitt, an at-home microdermabrasion device, or just your fingertips, she says. “It increases circulation and gives your skin a bit of a glow,” Farris says. “It also leaves skin feeling smooth and silky.” She recommends U.SK Under Skin Perfect Rice Scrub (Farris is a board member for the line), Philosophy Microdelivery Exfoliating Facial Wash, and St. Ives Gentle Smoothing Oatmeal Scrub & Mask.

Chemical exfoliators, on the other hand, work by dissolving the dead skin cells with acid, Farris says. There are two main acids to look for in the chemical exfoliator category: alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta hydroxy acids (BHAs).

AHAs — like glycolic acid, the most common one — work by disrupting the bond between dead skin cells to make them easy to scrub away, according to an article published in April 2018 in Molecules.

AHAs are water-soluble, while BHAs are fat-soluble, meaning they can cut through oily follicles to penetrate deep into the skin, according to an article published in the Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. This makes BHAs a good choice for oily skin types and people with acne-prone skin. Look for salicylic acid, the most popular BHA, in particular. A small study published in Skin Research & Technology found a topical salicylic acid with a 1.5 percent concentration applied two times a day for one month improved facial acne in 95 percent of the study participants.

You can also use a product that combines the two acids (Farris likes SkinMedica AHA/BHA Exfoliating Cleanser). Farris says the benefits of these chemicals go above and beyond exfoliation. “These multitaskers lighten pigmentation, reduce the appearance of pores, soften fine lines and wrinkles, and even improve breakouts,” she says.

RELATED: A Comprehensive Guide to Using Acids in Your Skin-Care Routine

It depends on which exfoliator you choose to use, but know that a little goes a long way. Also, you don’t want to exfoliate your skin every day (more on this later).

If you’re using a physical exfoliator, wet your face first, then apply a nickel-sized amount of the scrub. Massage it into the skin using circular motions, then rinse with water. Check your product’s instructions, too — some advise leaving the product on for 30 seconds or a minute before rinsing.

Chemical exfoliators, on the other hand, are generally leave-on treatments with no rinsing required, unless it’s a peel or a mask. Apply one or two pumps to clean and dry skin and you’re set. Again, read the product’s instructions to make sure you’re using it properly.

Then slather your moisturizer and other skin-care products on top to take advantage of the increased penetration benefit. And don’t forget sunscreen. According to a study published in the Journal of Dermatological Science, AHAs in particular can make skin more sensitive to the sun.

RELATED: 7 Sunscreen Mistakes That Hurt Your Skin

Though exfoliating is generally well tolerated once you find the right product and frequency, it’s not safe for people with inflammatory acne or rosacea, according to the AAD. These people should consult with a dermatologist before starting an exfoliating regimen because certain exfoliators can make these conditions worse.

Everyone else should be careful, too, as over-exfoliating can be harsh on the skin and cause irritation, says Zain Husain, MD, a board-certified dermatologist and founder of New Jersey Dermatology and Aesthetics Center in Marlboro, New Jersey. In short: Don’t exfoliate every day. “Daily exfoliation can be quite irritating and drying to the skin,” Dr. Husain says. He recommends exfoliating once or twice per week, though he adds you can increase that frequency in the summer months when the air isn’t as dry.

There’s no exact limit on how much exfoliation will be too much because it depends on your skin type and the exfoliator you’re using. Farris says that people with oily skin may be able to tolerate daily exfoliation, for example. Be ready for some trial and error, and pay attention to how your skin responds. Is it red after exfoliation? Overly sensitive? Accompanied by a burning sensation? Those are signs you need to cut back.

Farris recommends that people with sensitive skin steer clear of cleansing brushes and exfoliating mitts when using physical exfoliators. Acids aren’t entirely safe for sensitive skin types either. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), AHAs could cause burning, rashes, and swelling, and the safest concentrations are less than 10 percent AHA. BHAs tend to be less irritating, according to the FDA.

If your skin doesn’t respond well to either of these, look for polyhydroxy acids and bionic acids. Farris says these are the newest generation of hydroxy acids, and a study notes they’re similar to AHAs but less irritating, making them a good choice for people with sensitive skin. She likes the exfoliating cleanser Neostrata PHA Facial Cleanser, which is gentle enough for most people to use daily.

RELATED: 10 Things Your Skin Is Trying to Tell You — and How to Respond

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How to exfoliate for the first time?