Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a. What is palm oil? It's an edible vegetable oil that comes from the fruit of oil palm trees, the scientific name is Elaeis guineensis. What Is Palm Oil? Palm oil comes from the fleshy fruit of oil palms. Solutions to the environmental problems posed by palm production are complicated, partly because of palm oil's ubiquity, but also because. It offers a far greater yield at a lower cost of production than other vegetable oils.