The back end of line is the second portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices get interconnected with wiring on the wafer, the metalization layer. The back end of line (BEOL) is the second portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices (transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc. In the BEOL, there are many process steps, which fall into two categories- patterning and the dual damascene process. BEOL processing generally begins when the first layer of a conducting metal is deposited on top of the wafer (1. Drying high-aspect ratio features without watermarks for FEOL and BEOL are critical for manufacturing high-yielding IC devices.