Summary Paleolithic humans' diets varied depending on availability and location. A paleo diet typically includes lean meats, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds — foods that in the past could be obtained by hunting and gathering. The Paleolithic diet, Paleo diet, caveman diet, or stone-age diet is a modern fad diet consisting of foods thought to mirror those eaten during the Paleolithic era. The paleo diet is an eating plan that mimics how prehistoric humans may have eaten. What is the paleo diet and does it work? Learn the possible pros and cons of the nutritional approach, what to eat and avoid, short- and long-term effects, what. The pros of paleo are that it focuses on increasing intake of whole foods, fruits and vegetables, healthy proteins and healthy fats and decreasing.