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what is hz in music?

4 Answer(s) Available
Answer # 1 #

From the point of view of physics, music is made up of sounds that are generated by waveforms whose frequency is expressed in Hertz (Hz). The Hz express the cycles per second (1 Hz = 1 cycle per second). 3. Specifically, the frequency values determine the tonality and influence the timbre of the sounds.

LaRoyce Rokos
Natural Science
Answer # 2 #

The audio frequency spectrum represents the range of frequencies that the human ear can interpret. Sound frequency is measured in Hertz (Hz) unit. This audible frequency range, in the average person at birth, is from 20Hz to 20000Hz, or 20 kHz.

Due to age and other factors, including hearing damage, this range degrades over time, but for the average person, the 20 – 20000Hz range describes, and also represents what we hear in terms of frequency, or in terms of music, pitch.

Having an understanding of this audio spectrum can help in a number of areas;

Depending on where you are reading about the audio frequency spectrum, the terminology can be technical, or subjective, further complicating your understanding of it.

Knowledge of the audio spectrum can be just information that’s nice to know about and understand. We all love music, so gaining a deeper understanding of it is fun.

There may be times when you want to adjust the balance of the audio spectrum, using a graphic equalizer (EQ). Some knowledge can help you produce the results you’re after, and eliminate the guesswork.

In this article, we will explain the audio frequency spectrum, using subjective and basic technical terminology. This will advance your knowledge of the most commonly discussed details on the subject.

When a musical sound is produced in a medium such as air, it causes air molecules to vibrate. When these vibrations hit our ears, our ears vibrate at the same frequencies, and the signal is converted from a sound in the air into electrical signals that our brain interprets as sound.

The frequency refers to the number of times per second that a sound wave’s cycle repeats. The greater the frequency, the higher the pitch you perceive.

The image above was created using a digital oscilloscope. We see a single cycle of a sine wave, a digital representation of a repeating sound wave. A sine wave is the most basic sound we can produce.

The length of the cycle is between points A and B. Frequency is a measurement of sound in cycles per second, or Hertz (Hz). If a sound has a frequency of 20Hz, an extremely low frequency, it is cycling 20 times a second.

If we produce a sine wave of 10000Hz (10kHz), the sound is cycling incredibly fast, 10000 times a second, producing a much higher frequency and pitch.

In general, music listeners don’t have access to oscilloscopes, and the representation is only meaningful for explanation or when analyzing basic sounds. Music is far more complex. A more common tool you come across is a graphic representation, part of a graphic EQ device, in software or hardware form.

This image is a graphic representation of the sounds already mentioned, a 20Hz and a 10kHz sine wave. You can see how the frequency is divided in the scale along the bottom of the image, the X-axis. The vertical, Y-axis, represents the amplitude, which is related to volume, of frequencies in that range.

Music is far more complex than these basic tones. It contains thousands of frequencies mixed together.

In graphic equalizers, you have controls to cut and boost frequency ranges, to adjust the audio spectrum and tone of the music.

The full frequency range of the audio spectrum of music is complex. It is divided up into ranges to make it more manageable and easier to describe and control.

Wear your favorite headphones and lower the volume to a suitable level. Listen to the sine wave audio output in each of the frequency bands.

The frequency spectrum is broken up into seven bands, or ranges. Sometimes less, but we will discuss the common frequency ranges you will come across;

The frequency where a range begins and ends can vary by a small amount, but these are the common ranges.

These ranges can be also be simplified, often on budget equipment or through basic software control. Sub-bass and Bass are grouped together as “bass”.

It is possible to group the midranges together to be just “Mids”, or sometimes the midrange is left out, with only Lower and Higher midranges being referenced.

The Presence and Brilliance ranges can be grouped together and just called “Highs”.

These are the technical terms used to describe frequency bands and the range of frequencies contained within them.

You will often come across more subjective terminology generalizing these ranges. The Bass ranges are often referred to as the “lows” or the “low-end”. All the midrange content can get referred to as the “mids”, and everything above that as the “highs”.

All this terminology, technical and subjective is correct. Which is being used just depends on the context.

Sine wave demo (40 Hz):

The sub-bass frequency range lies from 16 – 60Hz. In order to accurately reproduce this extremely low range, you need quality headphones or full frequency speakers or a subwoofer. It requires more power from your amplifier and it needs to apply this with no distortion.

In speakers, the bass woofer size, and speaker design, is directly related to how much bass can be produced.

When configuring an EQ or subwoofer, be careful not to boost this range too much. While the earth-shaking power can be impressive, too much can leave your music sounding “muddy”, sounds become indistinct.

This is heard as a smearing of the frequencies in this range, which can also affect the bass and lower midrange. Sounds and instruments within these ranges become indistinct, due to the excessive energy.

Even though we cannot hear below 20Hz, occasionally there is frequency content below that. This is used in films and television for sound effects, or by experimental music composers.

Musically speaking, this is the domain of instruments such as kick drums, bass synthesizers, and some orchestral instruments such as harp and bassoon.

The bass range is a range that many people are passionate about. The bass range area lies around 60 – 250 Hz. Historically, it is a band that has seen the most advancement as recording and reproduction technology has developed.

Technologies such as speaker design, subwoofers, and digital signal processing allow for greater representation of this range.

To recreate the bass range accurately requires more power than the ranges above it. One of the main reasons for this is that our ears are less sensitive in this range. To reproduce bass accurately requires powerful amplifiers with low distortion.

The lower midrange, as well as the upper section of the bass range, is important as it contains the fundamental frequency of many acoustic instruments. The lower midrange lies around 250 – 500 Hz area.

The fundamental frequency of a sound is the frequency that determines the pitch of the sound. It is almost always the loudest frequency within a sound.

When this range is not heard accurately, instruments and the voice sound unnatural. It is particularly noticeable with singing as it is the range where the body and character of the voice resides.

When engineers are calibrating a sound system they will often use their own voice, speaking into a microphone. Any inconsistencies with the system will quickly become apparent in how the voice is reproduced, it is one of the most familiar sounds to us.

We are now entering into the center frequency range or midrange, an important range where the content of dialogue, vocals, and film and TV sound effects reside. Cheaper headphones, speakers and mobile phones focus the majority of their output in this range. The midrange lies around the 500 – 2000 Hz area.

It is the range beyond the fundamental frequency and lower harmonics or overtones, it adds clarity and detail. When sound engineers and producers want music to “pop” out of the radio, this is a range they focus on.

Excessive boost in the 1kHz range can make your music sound “horn-like” or have a metallic quality. If can also cause listener fatigue.

The higher midrange is the range where your ears are the most sensitive. Consonant sounds in the voice, such as k, p, s, t, are found in this range. In order for speech and singing to be clear this range needs proper clarity. The higher midrange signal is found in the 2 – 4 kHz area.

Due to the design and evolution of our ears, the ear canal (the section that goes from the outer ear to the eardrum) naturally resonates in a range of around 3.5kHz.

You can look at it as a built-in amplifier, it allows us to pick up sounds in this range better. Due to this, if music is lacking in this range we immediately notice it. The opposite is also true, too much emphasis and the music becomes irritating and hard to listen to.

As this area is important for interpreting details in vocal sounds, those interested in choral music, opera, podcasts, or anything that involves the voice will greatly appreciate headphones or speakers that shine in this area.

As well as the voice, percussion sounds reside in this area. Well reproduced midranges, or the mids, are what define great headphones and speakers. When auditioning either, this is a key area to focus on, making sure it is detailed, has depth, and sounds natural.

The presence range is responsible for upper range definition in your music. When this range is well-produced and clear, you feel like you are sitting in front of the music being performed. The presence signal is found in the 4 – 6 kHz area.

In the voice, this is the range where “s” sounds are. If over-emphasized it creates a distracting listening experience.

As classic albums get remastered, presence is often boosted to produce music that sounds more modern, or compares with modern production techniques.

When music is played on radio or streaming services, record companies are interested in consistency in playback. Modern music is more hyped in this range. This is a similar issue to the loudness wars.

When music is well-balanced in this range, it adds qualities such as warmth and sweetness to high strings, synths, and orchestral music. If overdone it adds harshness and sibilants, not just to voices, but also cymbals and hi-hats.

As the name suggests, the brilliance range adds brilliance and high-end clarity to music. The lower range can still be sibilant so excessive boosting in this range is not a good idea. The brilliance range lies around 6 – 16 kHz area.

The 10kHz is a range that affects clarity. This is heard as high-frequency sheen, and can give the music detail and sparkle.

Moving up from 10kHz is often referred to as the “air” band. It’s hard to describe what is happening in musical terms, but you can imagine the air being excited when at an orchestral performance.

There are few instruments, except for electronic sounds, that naturally have any loud harmonics, or frequency content in this area so it’s heard as a global effect across the complete piece of music you are listening to.

When this range of frequency is overemphasized, it sounds unnatural as they are few sounds in the real music, or nature that reside here.

One of the limitations of vinyl records, and how they are produced, is that their frequency response becomes attenuated and loses energy above 15kHz. This is one of the claims as to why they have a warmer, more natural sound, that is preferred by many listeners.

If you want to understand how your speakers and headphones work, and how to set up your equipment, having some knowledge of the audio frequency spectrum is beneficial.

It is a fact that the resolution of our ears, the detail we can interpret, far exceeds that of our visual sense. If something is not right, we are quick to notice it.

When the frequency balance is perfect, whether we are fully conscious of it or not, it elevates the listening experience.

Roschdy Wolfond
Design Strategist
Answer # 3 #

Frequency is a measure of vibration or oscillation, related to how quickly an object or a signal moves backwards and forwards between two positions. Sound is itself another type of vibration, caused as air molecules vibrate and collide, and pass on energy. So vibrating objects – such as musical instruments – cause sound vibrations that our ears can easily interpret. The measurement unit for vibration frequency is known as Hertz or Hz. So, if a drum is tuned to 100 Hz, its drumhead will vibrate up and down 100 times in a single second, similar applies to guitar strings and glockenspiel bars. Conveniently, some frequencies and frequency relationships are much more ‘musical’ than others, which provides a basis for music as we know it, and the tuning of musical instruments.

When a piano string vibrates, it vibrates at a very specific frequency related to its length and tension, and by changing the tension we can choose exactly what frequency each string vibrates at – the same principle applies to all musical instruments, including drums. So, every note on the piano keyboard has a corresponding frequency. For example, 98 Hz is note G2 on the piano, 110 Hz is A2 on the musical scale, C3 is at 130.8 Hz. Figure 3.2 shows every note on the piano within 50 – 400 Hz, giving the associated frequency value for each musical note.

Music is all about the organisation of different sounds and frequencies to make something pleasant, arranged, composed and interesting for our ears. Every musical note has a fundamental frequency (or pitch), but, in reality, it’s virtually impossible to create a single frequency at any one time. A single piano note is made up of different related frequencies all occurring at the same time, many of these being ‘harmonics’ which we’ll describe in more detail in the next section. If you hit three, five or eight piano notes at the same time, then you are generating perhaps hundreds of frequencies all at once. And when you scale this up to a full band or orchestra, we see that thousands of different frequencies are being created at any single moment, and if these frequencies are controlled and organised by skilled and knowledgeable musicians, the resultant sounds can create incredible and fascinating experiences for us to hear. For this reason, if analyzing music with a frequency chart – known as a frequency spectrum – it’s possible to identify which instruments contribute most to different frequency ranges. As humans, we can only hear sound vibrations between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz, but that’s enough to contain all of the different sounds in the most common music forms. We generally call frequencies down in the 20-200 Hz range ‘bass frequencies’, those up in around the 4,000-20,000 Hz range ‘treble frequencies’ and those in between (200-4,000 Hz) ‘midrange frequencies’. The diagram below shows a frequency spectrum of a musical piece and some indication of which instruments generate their most powerful frequencies in which areas.

Note that each instrument also generates harmonics, which also cause additional frequencies to be evident in the frequency range above the fundamental pitch range of each instrument.

There are a number of mathematical associations between musical pitch and frequency, which define the tuning and arrangement of most western music. Understanding these relationships can be helpful when learning to perform as a musician and when recording, mixing or producing music too.

One of the simplest mathematical relationships to identify is that octave notes are always seen when the frequency doubles. Looking back at the piano chart image, we see that the C2 note has a frequency of 65.4 Hz and this frequency doubles at the next C note (C3) which is at 130.8 Hz (65.4 * 2 = 130.8). The frequency doubles again at C4 which is 261.6 Hz, and you can see that all octaves of all notes occur when the frequency doubles. The diagram below shows all the A note octaves from A1 to A6.

It’s an incredible phenomenon of physics, but strings and bars vibrate with perfect harmonic overtones. This means that the main fundamental frequency of a string or bar is joined by many other frequencies that are harmonically related, which results in a beautiful rich tone that is much more ‘musical’ than a single frequency all on its own. The additional overtones are, by a chance of physics, at perfect multiples of the fundamental frequency, so a string tuned to A at 110 Hz also vibrates at harmonics of 220 Hz, 330 Hz, 440 Hz and so on, as shown in the image below – the same principle applies to glockenspiel bars too. This acoustics fact is what makes string and tuned percussion instruments so musical sounding. In fact, the same principle applies to the vibration frequencies on woodwind and brass instruments too!

You may ask yourself how are musical frequencies calculated or decided? We’ll this is all down to mathematics and musical tuning systems, which differ around the world. The most common musical tuning system is the ‘equal temperament’ system which is used mostly in classical and western pop music. Equal temperament’ defines that there are 12 notes in each octave, as we can see on the standard keyboard above.

First with the equal temperament scale, we need to set a ‘standard relative pitch’ which defines the frequency that a particular note will be chosen to have. Usually, we say that note A4 has a frequency of exactly 440.0 Hz, which allows all other musical frequencies to be defined relative to that particular note. Some composers choose to move this datum pitch a little and ask their musicians to tune their instruments with A4 set to, say, 432 Hz, but most popular and classical music stick to the A4=440 Hz norm.

Once the standard relative pitch has been set, we now need to calculate the frequencies of all 12 notes within an octave, giving each and ‘equal’ spacing. However, because an octave relates to a doubling of the frequency, it’s not possible to use a linear scale and simply divide the octave band by 12 to find the frequencies of each note. Instead, we need to use a logarithmic scale to define the frequency of each note within an octave band. Some simple maths tells us that the interval between two notes (or semitones) needs to be a number which wen multiplied by itself 12 times gives a perfect octave (i.e. 2, or double). This therefore gives us the following equation to find the frequency multiplier for semitone intervals:

And we can now use this value to calculate all of the frequency values for the semitones in a given octave range, as shown in the diagram below for the range A4 – A5. Note that each time we go up a semitone, the frequency increased by 1.0595 times, until we reach the octave which has an overall increase of 2 (since 1.0595 multiplied by itself 12 times equals 2!)

Musical intervals define the relationships between frequencies in a musical scale. Looking at this on the piano keyboard, we see from C to C there are 12 semitones (i.e. 12 piano keys), but a major scale has only 8 notes, those being C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C for the scale of C major. The figure below shows the frequency differences between each of these notes, which are all musically and mathematically related to the root or first note in the scale. For example we call the third note in the major scale the major 3rd and the 5th is the fifth note in the scale, which is G in the scale of C major.

By looking at the frequency ratios (i.e. mathematically dividing one frequency by the other), we can see the multipliers for each note in the scale. For example, we see that the 5th of C3 (130.8 Hz) is G3 at 196.0 Hz, and some simple math shows that 196.0 / 130.8 gives a frequency ratio of 1.50. Similarly, the frequency ratio of the major 3rd is 164.8 / 130.8 = 1.26 and the frequency ratio of an octave is exactly 2. These particular frequency ratios are what define musical intervals of a particular scale. The full list of major musical intervals and their associated frequency ratios is given in the table below.

With this understanding of musical frequencies, it’s possible to tune drums to sound extremely musical, rich and interesting. There are lots of different areas where this knowledge is applicable, firstly for tuning the pitch of each drum in the drum kit, as discussed in detail our tutorial on pitch tuning. This can be a really useful exercise to make sure your drums are setup to best suit the song you are playing and to give you a reference point each time you go to retune or change drumheads.

Secondly, we use the concept of musical intervals to help with tuning the resonant drumhead. We have a tutorial on resonant drumhead tuning too, and we generally recommend trying a musical fifth relationship between the fundamental and overtone frequencies of your drums, resulting in a rich warm sound.

Thirdly, it’s useful to use the concept of musical pitch and intervals to setup the whole drumkit and to ensure each drum gives a unique and interesting tone to the sound of the whole kit. Choosing musical intervals for your toms can be a complex but rewarding task, and we have a detailed tutorial on tuning the kit for specific styles and genres too. Legendary drummer Terry Bozzio (Frank Zappa, Herbie Hancock, Korn) has pioneered approaches towards musical tuning of drums, with his ‘Big Kit’ including 26 toms each tuned to a different musical pitch. Bozzio’s kit incorporates fourteen 8” x 3” piccolo toms tuned chromatically from C#5 (with a fundamental frequency of 554.4 Hz) down to C4, a B3 tuned 12” snare, and a range of other 8” to 14” diameter drums covering lower pitches from A3 down to E2 at 82.4 Hz. You can find out more info on this kit setup and hear examples at Terry Bozzio’s website here.

So, we’ve covered all the essential aspects of musical frequencies and discussed how these apply to music performance, instrument sound and, more specifically, to drum tuning too. If you want to tune your drums consistently and to musical pitches, and to achieve a great rich tone from each drum, and a musical setup of intervals between each drum in the kit, do check out our tutorials on these subjects here. The iDrumTune Pro app is specifically designed to help with learning about accurate drum tuning and ensuring you get the best possible sound out of your kit, every time you play and every time you retune or change drumheads – so equipped with some powerful musical acoustics knowledge and a precision tuning tool like iDrumTune Pro, you’re equipped to become a master of drum tuning!

If you want to know more about the underlying science of drumheads and drum sound, and learn more creative approaches to drum sound and drum tuning, check out the free iDrumTune ‘Drum Sound and Drum Tuning’ course at

Author Professor Rob Toulson is an established musician, sound engineer and music producer who works across a number of different music genres. He is also an expert in musical acoustics and inventor of the iDrumTune Pro mobile app, which can be downloaded from the App Store links below:

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Answer # 4 #

A highly relatable tale: You're onstage during soundcheck or in the studio, and you find yourself trying to describe a sound to the engineer in charge of whatever you're working on. It's at that point you find yourself at a loss for words on how to describe that high-pitched, squealy thingy the synth is making, or that flabby, meedley-deedley sound from the guitar. How do you put into words that thing that defies description, or perhaps even defies imitation? This quick guide is your crash course to the world of sounds, and how to refer to them and talk about them.

Usually, when we describe sounds in the audio world and talk about where they reside in pitch (low to high), we refer to them in terms of their frequency. Sound is a wave, a movement of air molecules that our brain translates into sound through a surprisingly complicated series of workings within our ears. These waves can be measured by how many times they complete a cycle in a second. (Is that day in high school physics class starting to come back to you now?) We measure these cycles per second in a unit of measurement called hertz (Hz). In music, particularly in tuning, we refer to the reference pitch A440, which is 440 Hz. This is the note that produces a vibration that cycles at 440 times per second.

So, now that we know what these numbers and notes mean, where do we go from here?

The widely accepted range of human hearing stretches from 20 Hz all the way up to 20,000 Hz (or 20k Hz). While most of us are born with this range, most adults actually have a range of 20 Hz to 15k or 16k Hz (barring no high-frequency-specific hearing loss). This sounds astronomical still, but the scale of frequencies doesn’t divide itself evenly. For example, to go up an octave, you need to double the frequency; to go down an octave, you need to halve the frequency. The A above middle C on the piano is 440 Hz, and the A the next octave above is 880 Hz, but the A the octave below middle C is 220 Hz. This means that there's only one octave of notes (12 half-steps) between 10,000 Hz and 20,000 Hz, yet also only an octave between 80 Hz and 160 Hz.

Now we know how we measure sounds, and what the playing field is for what we can hear. But how do we describe these sounds?

This range is your true low end. The bottom half of this range (20 Hz to 40 Hz) is more felt than heard. In this range, it can be very hard to discern a true pitch. Most speaker systems, even high-end studio monitors, don't even produce sound accurately in this range, if at all. For reference, an Imperial Bosendorfer extended grand piano starts at the note F0 (21.8 Hz fundamental) and your normal concert grand starts at A0 (27.5 Hz fundamental) – and even those notes are hard to tune at their fundamental. The upper half (40 Hz to 80 Hz) is where the lowest note of the four-string bass (fundamental E at 41 Hz) comes into play. This is that rumbly bottom end you feel in your chest when you hear it.

This is where we enter what is commonly considered the bass range. Around 80 to 120 Hz is where most consumer-grade mixers with fixed EQ points and home stereos set their "low" band. We now see the guitar enter the spectrum here (low E string in standard tuning is 82.5 Hz fundamental), and the bass actually begins its exit at its fundamental pitch (G string open fundamental is 98 Hz). This range, when boosted, is where things can feel boomy or thumpy, but also adds warmth. For example, that big kick you feel in a dance club when the beat is thumping away tends to live around 100 to 120 Hz. Not enough in this range on low-end instruments (bass, kick drum, piano, synths) can lead to them feeling thin and anemic. Really powerful, rumbling, low-sounding feedback from monitors in a stage setting tends to live in this range.

We actually cover a lot of ground in this range. A lot of people who are new to thinking of sound in terms of frequencies think low frequencies are actually lower than they are and high frequencies are higher than they are. In this range, we see the guitar start to disappear at its fundamental frequency (high E string open fundamental is 330 Hz). But 200 to 250 Hz is a double-edged sword; this is where things can sound really warm and sweet, but too much and you get that muddy feeling, like when you have a cold and your voice sounds muffled in your own head. Simply said, a build-up of 200 Hz is a head cold. Above this, 250 to 500 Hz is where things can sound boxy (yes, this is a commonly accepted term). Imagine the woody ring when you hit or knock on a hollow box. It's not as low and muddy as the "head cold," but it's similar. This is where you're looking for issues with that.

We're now entering mids to upper-mids territory in the consumer EQ sense. The guitar is completely out at its fundamental pitch, with the highest of frets being around 900 Hz. This 500 to 900 Hz range is where too much can make things honky or nasal. The audio aid for this range is the teacher from the Charlie Brown cartoons. That feeling you get with that "wha wha" sound is what a build-up in this band will feel like. Above this is where you find sounds that start to get more pointed and sharp-sounding – for example, the sound that goes along with the TV test pattern (imagine your local public access channel when it's off the air). Well, the sound that accompanies that, the "beeeeeep," is a pure sine wave at 1,000 Hz. So if you hear something that brings that same irritation with it, or feedback that sounds close in pitch to it, you're now somewhere in the 1k Hz to 1.6k Hz range.

This range is where the "presence" in the human voice lies. If things sound dull or flat, a boost around this range (usually around 3k Hz) will liven them up. However, we find the Goldilocks scenario that all sound techs live with: too much of a boost in this range, and sounds become harsh and edgy. We also finally lose the fundamental pitches of the piano here, with the highest of keys usually checking out at around 4k Hz. That same presence element we find in the human voice also lies here in guitars as well, often competing for the same sonic territory. There's a reason lead vocalists and lead guitarists tend to feel at odds with each other not only for stage presence, but also for the same sonic space.

Welcome to the high end of things. Our home hi-fi and consumer high EQs hang out somewhere up here. (Remember, we're only dealing with about an octave in this range.) Sounds up here tend to be of the hiss and squeal variety – you know, the painful kinds. Sibilants like the S's of words are what tend to live in this range. Without them, things sound undefined or lack a certain crispness. The sizzle from cymbals and other percussion is present around 7k Hz to 10k Hz. Shrieking, piercing feedback, or a real crunchy, tinny quality to sounds can be addressed in this band.

These are the extreme highs. This is where frequency response starts to experience dropouts like it did in the low end, but for the opposite reasons. Sometimes it's because the transducer of a microphone may not be able to accurately respond to these frequencies, but sometimes it's because people can literally not hear things going on in this range. (High-end hearing in this realm is usually the first to go.) These frequencies can best be described as "air." That heady, open quality to a sound usually results from good representation of overtones in this range. Now, before you go pegging out all your EQs at 10 to 12k Hz to add airiness, also understand that simply boosting this range won't give you anything but noise if nothing exists there to begin with. For example, jingle a set of car keys. That really crispy, bell-like quality of the keys hitting one another is what we refer to in this air range. Can’t hear it? Don't worry, I know a number of incredible mix engineers who I'm nearly positive are deaf to anything above 14k Hz, and they still do incredible work. (The science behind why that's the case is actually incredibly complex, and I already fear I may have passed the saturation point for most Twitter-generation audiences... so perhaps in another post.)

I hope that this breakdown will begin to help you describe what you hear and define how you hear it. At the very least, you may now understand why some sound techs roll their eyes at you when you ask for more "highs" in your monitor mix – it's not actually that simple.

Aaron Staniulis is not only a freelance live sound and recording engineer, but also an accomplished musician, singer, and songwriter. He has spent equal time on both sides of the microphone working for and playing alongside everyone from local bar cover bands to major label recording artists, in venues stretching from tens to tens of thousands of people. Having seen both sides at all levels gives him the perfect perspective for shedding light on the "Angry Sound Guy." You can find out more about what he’s up to at

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