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How to say hello in mvskoke?

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The Muscogee language (Muskogee, Mvskoke IPA:  in Muscogee), also known as Creek, is a Muskogean language spoken by Muscogee (Creek) and Seminole people, primarily in the US states of Oklahoma and Florida. Along with Mikasuki, when it is spoken by the Seminole, it is known as Seminole.

Historically, the language was spoken by various constituent groups of the Muscogee or Maskoki in what are now Alabama and Georgia. It is related to but not mutually intelligible with the other primary language of the Muscogee confederacy, Hitchiti-Mikasuki, which is spoken by the kindred Mikasuki, as well as with other Muskogean languages.

The Muscogee first brought the Muscogee and Miccosukee languages to Florida in the early 18th century. Combining with other ethnicities there, they emerged as the Seminole. During the 1830s, however, the US government forced most Muscogee and Seminole to relocate west of the Mississippi River, with most forced into Indian Territory.

The language is today spoken by around 5,000 people, most of whom live in Oklahoma and are members of the Muscogee Nation and the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma. Around 200 speakers are Florida Seminole. Seminole-speakers have developed distinct dialects.

Creek is widely spoken among the Creek. The Muscogee Nation offers free language classes and immersion camps to Creek children.

The College of the Muscogee Nation offers a language certificate program. Tulsa public schools, the University of Oklahoma and Glenpool Library in Tulsa and the Holdenville, Okmulgee, and Tulsa Creek Indian Communities of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation offer Muskogee Creek language classes. In 2013, the Sapulpa Creek Community Center graduated a class of 14 from its Muscogee language class. In 2018, 8 teachers graduated from a class put on by the Seminole nation at Seminole State College to try and reintroduce the Muskogee language to students in elementary and high school in several schools around the state.

The phoneme inventory of Muscogee consists of thirteen consonants and three vowel qualities, which distinguish length, tone and nasalization. It also makes use of the gemination of stops, fricatives and sonorants.

These are the consonant phonemes of Muscogee:

There are four voiceless stops in Creek: /p t t͡ʃ k/. /t͡ʃ/ is a voiceless palatal affricate and patterns as a single consonant and so with the other voiceless stops. /t͡ʃ/ has an alveolar allophone before /k/. The obstruent consonants /p t t͡ʃ k/ are voiced to between sonorants and vowels but remain voiceless at the end of a syllable.

Between instances of , or after at the end of a syllable, the velar /k/ is realized as the uvular or . For example:

There are four voiceless fricatives in Muscogee Creek: /f s ɬ h/. /f/ can be realized as either labiodental () or bilabial in place of articulation. Predominantly among speakers in Florida, the articulation of /s/ is more laminal, resulting in /s/ being realized as , but for most speakers, /s/ is a voiceless apico-alveolar fricative .

Like /k/, the glottal /h/ is sometimes realized as the uvular when it is preceded by or when syllable-final:

The sonorants in Muscogee are two nasals (/m/ and /n/), two semivowels (/w/ and /j/), and the lateral /l/, all voiced. Nasal assimilation occurs in Creek: /n/ becomes before /k/.

Sonorants are devoiced when followed by /h/ in the same syllable and results in a single voiceless consonant:

All plosives and fricatives in Muscogee can be geminated (lengthened). Some sonorants may also be geminated, but and are less common than other sonorant geminates, especially in roots. For the majority of speakers, except for those influenced by the Alabama or Koasati languages, the geminate does not occur.

The vowel phonemes of Muscogee are as follows:

There are three short vowels /i ɑ o/ and three long vowels /iː ɑː oː/. There are also the nasal vowels /ĩ ɑ̃ õ ĩː ɑ̃ː õː/ (in the linguistic orthography, they are often written with an ogonek under them or a following superscript "n"). Most occurrences of nasal vowels are the result of nasal assimilation or the nasalizing grade, but there are some forms that show contrast between oral and nasal vowels:

The three short vowels /i ɑ o/ can be realized as the lax and centralized () when a neighboring consonant is coronal or in closed syllables. However, /ɑ/ will generally not centralize when it is followed by /h/ or /k/ in the same syllable, and /o/ will generally remain noncentral if it is word-final. Initial vowels can be deleted in Creek, mostly applying to the vowel /i/. The deletion will affect the pitch of the following syllable by creating a higher-than-expected pitch on the new initial syllable. Furthermore, initial vowel deletion in the case of single-morpheme, short words such as ifa 'dog' or icó 'deer' is impossible, as the shortest a Creek word can be is a one-syllable word ending in a long vowel (fóː 'bee') or a two-syllable word ending with a short vowel (ací 'corn').

There are three long vowels in Muscogee Creek (/iː ɑː oː/), which are slightly longer than short vowels and are never centralized.

Long vowels are rarely followed by a sonorant in the same syllable. Therefore, when syllables are created (often from suffixation or contractions) in which a long vowel is followed by a sonorant, the vowel is shortened:

In Muscogee, there are three diphthongs, generally realized as .

Both long and short vowels can be nasalized (the distinction between acces and ącces below), but long nasal vowels are more common. Nasal vowels usually appear as a result of a contraction, as the result of a neighboring nasal consonant, or as the result of nasalizing grade, a grammatical ablaut, which indicates intensification through lengthening and nasalization of a vowel (likoth- 'warm' with the nasalizing grade intensifies the word to likŏ:nth-os-i: 'nice and warm'). Nasal vowels may also appear as part of a suffix that indicates a question (o:sk-ihá:n 'I wonder if it's raining').

There are three phonemic tones in Muscogee; they are generally unmarked except in the linguistic orthography: high (marked in the linguistic orthography with an acute accent: á, etc.), low (unmarked: a, etc.), and falling (marked with a circumflex: â, etc.).

The traditional Muscogee alphabet was adopted by the tribe in the late 1800s and has 20 letters.

Although it is based on the Latin alphabet, some sounds are vastly different from those in English like those represented by c, e, i, r, and v. Here are the (approximately) equivalent sounds using familiar English words and the IPA:

There are also three vowel sequences whose spellings match their phonetic makeup:

As mentioned above, certain consonants in Muscogee, when they appear between two sonorants (a vowel or m, n, l, w, or y), become voiced. They are the consonants represented by p, t, k, c, and s:

In addition, certain combinations of consonants sound differently from English, giving multiple possible transcriptions. The most prominent case is the second person singular ending for verbs. Wiketv means "to stop:" the verb for "you are stopping" may be written in Creek as wikeckes or wiketskes. Both are pronounced the same. The -eck- transliteration is preferred by Innes (2004), and the -etsk- transliteration has been used by Martin (2000) and Loughridge (1964).

While vowel length in Muscogee is distinctive, it is somewhat inconsistently indicated in the traditional orthography. The following basic correspondences can be noted:

However, the correspondences do not always apply, and in some words, short /a/ is spelled a, long /iː/ is spelled e, and short /o/ is spelled o.

Muscogee Creek words carry distinctive tones and nasalization of their vowels. These features are not marked in the traditional orthography, only in dictionaries and linguistic publications. The following additional markers have been used by Martin (2000) and Innes (2004):

The general sentence structure fits the pattern subject–object–verb. The subject or object may be a noun or a noun followed by one or more adjectives. Adverbs tend to occur either at the beginning of the sentence (for time adverbs) or immediately before the verb (for manner adverbs).

Case is marked on noun phrases using the clitics -t for subjects, and -n for non-subjects. The clitic -n can appear on multiple noun phrases in a single sentence at once, such as the direct object, indirect object, and adverbial nouns. Despite the distinction in verbal affixes between the agent and patient of the verb, the clitic -t marks subject of both transitive and intransitive verbs.

In some situations, case marking is omitted. This is especially true of sentences with only one noun where the role of the noun is obvious from the personal marking on the verb. Case marking is also omitted on fixed phrases that use a noun, e.g. "go to town" or "build a fire".

In Muscogee, a single verb can translate into an entire English sentence. The root infinitive form of the verb is altered for:

Some Muscogee verbs, especially those involving motion, have highly irregular plurals: letketv = to run, with a singular subject, but tokorketv = to run of two subjects and pefatketv = to run of three or more.

Another entire class of Muscogee verbs is the stative verbs, which express no action, imply no duration, and provide only description of a static condition. In some languages, such as English, they are expressed as adjectives. In Muscogee, the verbs behave like adjectives but are classed and treated as verbs. However, they are not altered for the person of the subject by an affix, as above; instead, the prefix changes:

enokkē = to be sick; enokkēs = he / she is sick; cvnokkēs = I'm sick; cenokkēs = you are sick.

Prefixes are also used in Muscogee for shades of meaning of verbs that are expressed, in English, by adverbs in phrasal verbs. For example, in English, the verb to go can be changed to to go up, to go in, to go around, and other variations. In Muscogee, the same principle of shading a verb's meaning is handled by locative prefixes:

Example: vyetv = to go (singular subjects only, see above); ayes = I am going; ak-ayes = I am going (in water / in a low place / under something); tak-ayes = I am going (on the ground); oh-ayes = I am going (on top of something).

However, for verbs of motion, Muscogee has a large selection of verbs with a specific meaning: ossetv = to go out; ropottetv = to go through.

Clauses in a sentence use switch-reference clitics to co-ordinate their subjects. The clitic -t on a verb in a clause marks that the verb's subject is the same as that of the next clause. The clitic -n marks that verb's subject is different from the next clause.

In some languages, a special form of the noun, the genitive case, is used to show possession. In Muscogee this relationship is expressed in two quite different ways, depending on the nature of the noun.

A body part or family member cannot be named in Muscogee without mentioning the possessor, which is an integrated part of the word. A set of changeable prefixes serves this function:

Even if the possessor is mentioned specifically, the prefix still must be part of the word: Toskē enke = Toske's hand. It is not redundant in Muscogee ("Toske his_hand").

All other nouns are possessed through a separate set of pronouns.

Again, even though the construction in English would be redundant, the proper way to form the possessive in Muscogee must include the correct preposition: Toskē em efv = Toske's dog. That is grammatically correct in Muscogee, unlike the literal English translation "Toske his dog".

A final distinctive feature, related to the above, is the existence of locational nouns. In English, speakers have prepositions to indicate location, for example, behind, around, beside, and so on. In Muscogee, the locations are actually nouns. These are possessed just like parts of the body and family members were above.

Claudio Saunt, writing about the language of the later 18th century, said that there were different feminine and masculine versions, which he also calls dialects, of the Muscogee language. Males "attach distinct endings to verbs", while Females "accent different syllables". These forms, mentioned in the first (1860) grammar of the Creek language, persisted in the Hichiti, Muscogee proper, and Koasati languages at least into the first half of the 20th century.: 141

The forms of Muscogee used by the Seminoles of Oklahoma and Florida are separate dialects from the ones spoken by Muscogee people. Oklahoma Seminole speak a dialect known as Oklahoma Seminole Creek. Florida Seminole Creek is one of two languages spoken among Florida Seminoles; it is less common than the Mikasuki language. The most distinct dialect of the language is said to be that of the Florida Seminole, which is described as "rapid", "staccato" and "dental", with more loan words from Spanish and Mikasuki as opposed to English. Florida Seminole is the most endangered register of Muskogee.

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Gauahar Saini
COOK HELPER PASTRY
Answer # 2 #

Thank you. Mvto. Muh-doe. I’ll see you again.

Estvmin Like Cet Towa? Thank you.

it means thank you

(pronounced: muh-toh)

1 plural Muscogee or Muscogees or Muskogee or Muskogees : a member of the people who comprised the nucleus of the Creek confederacy : creek sense 2a.

The English called the Muscogee the “Creek”, probably due to the large amount of rivers, creeks, and streams in their lands. The English further divided the Muscogee into the Upper Creek (living along the Coosa and the Tallapoosa rivers) and the Lower Creeks (living along the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers).

Creek spirituality encompasses awareness of spiritual beings, both good and bad. Participants believed that spirits exist alongside people and can send and receive messages from people to guide and inform them. Creeks have ongoing, though not constant, relationships with loved ones and others who have died.

The word skoden has been used by various Indigenous communities for a long time, but has been more of an inside joke/slang word for “let’s go then.” It started gaining popularity on Indigenous people’s social media feeds a few years ago, and more recently showed up when someone spray-painted skoden over the Sudbury …

Etymology. From Kiowa aho (“thank you”), and loaned to many other Native American languages during the 20th century because it was frequently heard at pow-wows and widely used in the Native American Church (NAC).

The acronym SKO is typically used in text-based messaging with the meaning “Let’s Go.” It based on the similarity of the sound made when saying “Let’s Go” to that made when pronouncing SKO as a word. “Let’s Go” is also often abbreviated as SGO.

The Seminole Indians of Florida consist of two major linguistic groups that speak Mikasuki and Creek. The term Seminole is borrowed from the Spanish cimarron ‘wild one’ and refers to the people who broke away from the Muscogee Confederacy in historical times.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ev_qzn8R_6A

The Muscogee Nation, or Muscogee (Creek) Nation, is a federally recognized Native American tribe based in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The nation descends from the historic Muscogee Confederacy, a large group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.

The Muscogee lived in autonomous villages in river valleys throughout present-day Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, speaking several related Muskogean languages.

The Creek name came from British settlers, perhaps referring to the numerous creeks that ran through the tribe’s ancestral homelands in what is now the southeastern United States. The tribe always called itself Muscogee, Salsman said.

The Muscogee (Creek) people are descendants of a culture that, before AD 1500, spanned the entire region known today as the Southeastern United States. Early ancestors of the Muscogee constructed earthen pyramids along the rivers of this region as part of their elaborate ceremonial complexes.

The Muscogee people survived the difficulties of removal because of their strong culture and will to live.

Where do the Creeks live? The Creeks are original residents of the American southeast, particularly Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and North Carolina. Most Creeks were forced to move to Oklahoma in the 1800’s, like other southern Indian tribes. There are 20,000 Muskogee Creeks in Oklahoma today.

Aho, a phrase in the Kansai dialect of Japanese, meaning “idiot”, see Baka (Japanese word)#Dialectal.

English meaning of aaho

yes, of course , a sound or word used at the time of confession and excitement like yes!

This week’s word, “Osiyo,” is how we say “hello” in Cherokee. Osiyo means more than just hello to Cherokees. It’s a deeper spirit of welcoming and hospitality that has been a hallmark of the Cherokee people for centuries.

The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, not to be confused with the Cree who are found in Canada and northern United States from Minnesota westward. The Creek are also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee).

Snagging is a popular, tongue-in-cheek term used in many Indigenous communities. “In essence and in this context it really means human relations. Not just hook up culture or sexuality, but the relations that we have as Indigenous peoples.”

Skoden is a Native slang word for “let’s go then”, usually said before a fight. “Stoodis (let’s do this)” and “Kayden (okay then)” are related slang words. The original Skoden meme featured a picture of a homeless man with his fist drawn. We knew him only as Skoden.

Creek Indians Belief in Souls

A man was believed to have two souls, first, the spirit which goes with him through life and talks to him in his dreams and is called the good spirit, being named inu’tska, which signifies “his talent,” “his ability,” “his genius.” It was thought to be seated in the head.

The Muscogee believed that the world was originally entirely underwater. The only land was a hill called Nunne Chaha on which is the home of Hesaketvmese (meaning “master of breath”; pronounced Hisakita imisi), a solar deity also called Ibofanga (“the one who is sitting above (us)”).

Words such as “Skoden” (Meaning “Let’s go then!”) should resonate with the show’s legion of indigenous fans.

Across the center of the sweater a large Ralphie symbol is embroidered with holiday antlers above it. Underneath the words “SKO BUFFS” is embroidered to represent great Buff spirit.

SKO stands for sales kickoff. A sales kickoff is a meeting for a company’s sales teams, typically held in January or February at the beginning of the fiscal year. In this meeting, sales leaders get everyone on the same page for how they’ll grow business in the new year.

Courtesy of Lisa Beck. Another popular subset of unique names are those that are derived from the (most often) grandmother’s first name. So Gabby McCree is Gigi. “It’s an abbreviation for ‘Grandma Gabby’ and also my initials growing up,” she says. (Her husband, Don, went with Pop Pop.)

The Seven Nations were located at Lorette, Wolinak, Odanak, Kahnawake, Kanesetake, Akwesasne and La Présentation. Sometimes the Abenaki of Wolinak and Odanak were counted as one nation and sometimes the Algonquin and the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) at Kanesetake were counted as two separate nations.

The Creek Indians were a confederation of tribes that belonged primarily to the Muskhogean linguistic group, which also included the Choctaws and Chickasaws. The Muskogees were the dominant tribe of the confederacy, but all members eventually came to be known collectively as Creek Indians.

The Green Corn Ceremony is a celebration of the new corn and the New Year. It is a time of forgiveness and purification for both the ceremonial grounds and the Creek people.

Common rituals included: (a) conducting a wake service the night before burial; (b) never leaving the body alone before burial; (c) enclosing personal items and food in the casket; (d) digging graves by hand; (e) each individual throwing a handful of dirt into the grave before covering, called giving a “farewell …

Nana is the most common nickname for a Grandma in thirty-two states. But if someone doesn’t call their grandmother Nana, odds are they do call her Grammy or Gram, as these are relatively popular alternatives to Grandma, as well.

Grandma: Nani (maternal), Nana (paternal) Grandpa: Dadi (maternal), Dada (paternal) “In our Indian culture, ‘nani’ is maternal grandmother, and ‘dadi’ is maternal grandfather.

Sitt is an ancient Yemenite (Himyarite) word meaning a “woman.” It means “Mrs.” or “grandmother” in various urban dialects. In Syria it means “grandmother,” except in the north (Aleppo) where it is never used. In Aleppo we call a grandmother naane (vocative: naana), which is also used in Turkish.

Greetings. “Hello” Hensci/Hesci! “How are you?” Estonko?

1834: Muscogee Creek are forced out of Alabama

The Treaty of Cusseta, signed in 1832, divided Muscogee Creek land into individual allotments, which the recipient could either sell or retain.

The Creek people descend from Indigenous tribes who lived in the Southeastern U.S. long before European colonization, but eventually those two histories converged. As chattel slavery became a core economic engine in the colonies, some tribes, including the Creek, also capitalized on slave labor.

Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Tribes in Oklahoma.

The Creeks refer to themselves as the ‘Muskogee’ or ‘Ocmulgee’.

When Adams threatened Troup with federal intervention, Troup prepared the state militia, and Adams backed down, saying “The Indians are not worth going to war over.” By 1827, the Creeks were gone from Georgia.

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Sngmoo T
Set Dresser
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Greetings. “Hello” Hensci/Hesci!

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Shana McVay
Hotel Boy
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Alphabet:

See the above graphic, especially "C," (ch) "V,"  (uh) "E,"  (i) "I," (Ee) "O,"  (Oh) "U" (Uu).

Sentence Order:

(1) Subject (2) Subject's Adjectives (3) Object (4) Object's Adcetives (5) Adverbs (6) Verbs, or S-a-O-a-av-V.

Pronouns:

Vc/Cv - Me

Vne - I / Self (as object)

Cvm(e) - My (object/animal)

Vn/Vm - My

Vntat - As for me

Vntv? - And me?

Ce - You

Cen/Cem - Your

Cemeo - You too!

Centv - And you?

E/Em/En - He/She/It/They/Theirs/THem

--- Em - when before a vowel

--- E/En - when before a consonant

Heyv/Heyvn/Yvmv/Yvmvn - This/Here

Mv/Mvn - That/There

Momet - That, over there

Momen - And then

Mvta? - And that?

Yv - This

Nake - The thing

Emetake - They

Pume - We

Pu - We

Pom/Pun - Us

Pumeo - Us too

Puntv? - And us?

Nouns:

-at - The (changing -e to -at makes a definite noun, e.g. Katcv Lvste = Black Panther; Katcv Lvstat = The Black Panther

-t - A (changing -e to -et makes an indefinite noun, e.g. Katcv Lvste = Black Panther; Katcv Lvstet = A Black Panther

-sasv - place with, suffix (e.g. Katcv-sasv = Place with Panthers)

Akcvohko - Water bird, like a crane

Atvme - Automobile/Car

Ayo - Hawk

Achi- corn (c.f. sofke, ecko)

Cahtv - Blood

Canv – Flies

Cesse - Mouse

Cesse Thlakko - Rat

Cepan - Boy

Cufe - Rabbit

Cufe Honeco  - Woodsrabbit

Cufe Thlakko - Jackrabbit

Culv - Fox

Cuntv - Maggot / gross worm

Cetto - Snake

Choko - House

Efv - Deer

Efvlke - Deer Clan

Este - Person

Estepapv - Man-Eater

Ethlo - Squirrel

Ecko - Dried Corn

Efa - Dog

Ekvnsatkv - Marks on the Earth/Tracks

Ekvnwv - Earth

Este - Man

Este-thlmethlketvn - the needy , the poor , the suffering

Eto - Tree

Fehpv - Flute

Fullan - Air

Fus - Bird

Fuswvlke - Bird Clan

Fus-cahtv - Cardinal, lit. Blood Bird

Fus-Cate - Red Bird

Fuco - Duck

Fuco Lvste - Black Duck, like the American Coot

Fucosule - Muscovy Duck

Hvnthlv Wuce - Hummingbird

Hokte - Girl

Hotvle - Wind

Hotvlke - Wind Clan

Hoktvci - Little Girl

Hoktvle - Woman

Hvcce - Stream (always lengthen pause following doubled letters)

Hvce - Tail

Hvlwe talwvlke - High towns / Heaven

Iste-Cate– Red People / Native Americans

Ito ici – Leaves / tree hair

Katcv - Wildcat, like a Cougar or Panther

Katcvlke - Wildcat Clan

Kokkv - Swan

Kute - Treefrogs

Kvfko- Fleas

Kvsappv -  North

Kwv - Osprey

Lekothv - South

Lvmhe – Eagle

Mvhayv - Teacher

Nokuse - Bear

Nokvsvlke - Bear Clan

Nokuse-Lvste – Blackbear

Nake - Thing or What

Nene istemethlketvn- Trail of Tears, lit. Way of the suffering people

Nene – Way / Path

Nethle - Night

Noksukcv - Pelican

Okyeha - Mosquito

Oka/Oiwa- water

O Thlakko - Great Blue Heron

Osawv - Crow

Papv - Eater

Pvce-Lane - Parrot (Yellow Dove)

Pvce - Dove

Pvnnvtv - Wild animals

Penwv - Turkey

Pokko Thlakko - Basketball

Sake-Lv - Black bird

Satkv - Mark

Sofke - Hominy grits

Thlakko - Horse, lit. "Big", originally "Efv Thlakko" or "Big Deer"

Thlakko Pihkv - Mule

Thlakko Pihkv Hakv - Donkey

Thlvtce-Kuphe - Camel

Tafv - Feather

Totkv - Fire

Toknawah - Money

Tomatv - Tomato

Vpuekv - Tame Animals

Vce - Corn

Vhv - Potato

Vhvlke - Swamp Potato Clan

Wasko- Chigger

Wotko - Raccoon

Wotkvlke - Raccoon Clan

Wotko-Este - Monkey, lit. Raccoon Man

Wvko Hvtke - White Egret

Wvnwv - Sister

Wvcenv - United States, lit. "Virginia"

Uewv - Water

Yupo - Nose

Yupo Luwake - Elephant

Yvhv - Wolf

Yvnvsv - Buffalo

Yvpefikv- Sheep

Yvpe-Thlakke - Ram

Adjectives:

Afvcke - Happy/Joyful

Cate - Red

Cefke - Thick

Cutke - Small

Cvpakke - Angry

Fvmpe - Stinky

Fvmcuse - Fragrant

Fvske - Sharp

Hethle - Good

Hethleko - Bad

Hiye - Hot (Temperature)

Hvlwe - High

Home - Spicy/Hot

Honne - Heavy

Hopiye - Far

Hvlvlatke - Slow

Hvtke - White

Leske - Old

Lvpke - Hurry

Lvne - Yellow

Lvste - Black

Kvsvppe - Cold

Kocukne - Short

Luwake - Weak

Lopucke - Little

Lopice - Obedient

Mapohiceko - Disobedient

Mahe - Tall

Mocvse - New

Mvnette - Young

Neskv-Cuko - Store (as in, shop)

Polokse - Round

Polse - Slow

Pvfne - Fast

Pvthko ome - Purple

Svtahe - Square

Tefne - Dull

Thlemhe - Thin

Toske - Sour, as in fermented

Topaske - Bland

Thlakko/e - Big/Large

Tvhokne - Light (Bright)

Vcle - Old

Vceweseko - Very soon/Not long

Vwole - Close

Yekce - Strong

Yomucke - Dark

Hofune Yomucke - Long Dark, lit. Late at Night

Verbs:

-n - adverbs; add an -n to a -e or -et verb ending to create an adverb; e.g. Pvfne -> Pvfnen to create an adverb. Align adverb prefix to verb prefix:

-vlke - people

-tos - It is, suffix (e.g. Homa-tos = It is spicy.)

-toko - It is not, suffix (e.g. Homa-toko = It is not spicy.)

-towa? - Is it?, suffix (e.g. Homa-towa? = Is it spicy.)

Verb Prefixes

Vc/Cv - Me

Ce - You

Pu - We

Pun - Us

Vn/Vm - My

Cen/Cem - You

En/Em = His/Her/Its

-vs/cvs is a command suffix turning a verb into a command

-cis is a 1st person suffix

-etv - infitive suffix added to verb meaning "to ___" or "____ing"

-kot - Don't , a negating suffix equivalent to adding "don't" before a word in English

-kv - Do , a positive suffix equivalent to adding "do" before a word in English

Emvnicetv - To Help

Hayetv - To Make

Hocetv - To Grind

Hoccicetv - To Write

Hompetv - To Eat

Cvnetv - To Do

Liketv - To Sit (while living)

Tvklakv - To Sit (while inanimate)

Laksetv - To Lie (as in, dishonesty)

Maketv - To Say

Omvtv -To Be

Ocetv - To Have

Tepoyetv - To Fight

Vyetv - To Go

Vtetv - To Come

Vlvketv - To Arrive

Prepositions:

iem - with

o fv - Inside

Tos - Is

Greeting Phrases:

Hethlis-chee - It is good (As question, or as response to estonko)

Estonko - No problems?

--- Ehe tonko tos - Yes! No problems.

Emonksa? - Everything the same?

--- Emonkos - Nothing's changed.

Moncentv - And how about you?

Cehecathles - I will see you.

Hvtvm cehecathles - I will see you again.

Hvtvm Tehecyvthles - We will see each other again.

Estonkon cukhayvtikv - Did you make it through the night okay?

Phrases:

Ehe - Yes

Enka - You are welcome, Lit. "and you"

Emvnicvs! - Help them!

He-lah! - Stop that!

Naket ohaks - What is it?

Monko - No

Mvto! - Thank you! Mvtci - I am thankful!

Mvdowvdee - Thank you all!

Pvcase emvnicvs! - Lord help them!

Vcaketcet os - You are important

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Hiwi – A German Abbreviation For "Assistant Scientist"