what is mda drug?
Description 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug. In terms of pharmacology, MDA acts most importantly as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent. Wikipedia
Despite its illegal status, MDA is still used recreationally. It is known for its euphoric and empathogenic effects, which can last for several hours. However, MDA can also cause a range of negative side effects, including:
MDA can also be dangerous when taken in high doses or in combination with other drugs. It can cause seizures, coma, and even death.
MDA is not included in standard drug tests, but it can be detected with specialized tests. Nao Medical offers drug testing services in NYC, including tests for MDA. Our drug tests are accurate, reliable, and confidential. We offer same-day appointments and minimal wait times, so you can get the answers you need quickly.
If you are concerned about MDA use, or if you need drug testing for employment or other purposes, book an appointment with Nao Medical today. Our team of healthcare professionals is here to help you stay healthy and safe.
MDA is a synthetic drug that can cause euphoric and empathogenic effects, but also negative side effects and risks. Nao Medical offers drug testing services in NYC, including tests for MDA. Book an appointment today to stay healthy and safe.
MDA, or 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception. It is chemically similar to MDMA, or ecstasy, and is often sold as a substitute for it.
MDA can cause euphoric and empathogenic effects, but also negative side effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure, dehydration, hyperthermia, insomnia, anxiety and paranoia, depression, and memory and cognitive problems.
MDA can be dangerous when taken in high doses or in combination with other drugs. It can cause seizures, coma, and even death.
3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA and sass) is an empathogen-entactogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine family that is encountered mainly as a recreational drug. In terms of pharmacology, MDA acts most importantly as a serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA). In most countries, the drug is a controlled substance and its possession and sale are illegal.
MDA is rarely sought after as a recreational drug compared to other drugs in the amphetamine family; however, it remains an important and widely used drug due to it being a primary metabolite, the product of hepatic N-dealkylation, of MDMA (ecstasy). In addition, it is common to find MDA as an adulterant of illicitly produced MDMA.
MDA currently has no accepted medical use.
MDA is bought, sold, and used as a recreational 'love drug', due to its enhancement of mood and empathy. A recreational dose of MDA is sometimes cited as being between 100 and 160 mg.
MDA produces serotonergic neurotoxic effects, thought to be activated by initial metabolism of MDA. In addition, MDA activates a response of the neuroglia, though this subsides after use.
Symptoms of acute toxicity may include agitation, sweating, increased blood pressure and heart rate, dramatic increase in body temperature, convulsions, and death. Death is usually caused by cardiac effects and subsequent hemorrhaging in the brain (stroke).
MDA is a substrate of the serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and vesicular monoamine transporters, as well as a TAAR1 agonist, and for these reasons acts as a reuptake inhibitor and releasing agent of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine (that is, it is an SNDRA). It is also an agonist of the serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptors and shows affinity for the α2A-, α2B-, and α2C-adrenergic receptors and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors.
The (S)-optical isomer of MDA is more potent than the (R)-optical isomer as a psychostimulant, possessing greater affinity for the three monoamine transporters.
In terms of the subjective and behavioral effects of MDA, it is thought that serotonin release is required for its empathogen-entactogen effects, release of dopamine and norepinephrine is responsible for its psychostimulant effects, dopamine release is necessary for its euphoriant (rewarding and addictive) effects, and direct agonism of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is causative of its psychedelic effects.
The duration of the drug has been reported as about 6 to 8 hours.
MDA is a substituted methylenedioxylated phenethylamine and amphetamine derivative. In relation to other phenethylamines and amphetamines, it is the 3,4-methylenedioxy, α-methyl derivative of β-phenylethylamine, the 3,4-methylenedioxy derivative of amphetamine, and the N-desmethyl derivative of MDMA.
In addition to 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, MDA is also known by other chemical synonyms such as the following:
MDA is typically synthesized from essential oils such as safrole or piperonal. Common approaches from these precursors include:
MDA may be quantitated in blood, plasma or urine to monitor for use, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Some drug abuse screening programs rely on hair, saliva, or sweat as specimens. Most commercial amphetamine immunoassay screening tests cross-react significantly with MDA and major metabolites of MDMA, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. The concentrations of MDA in the blood or urine of a person who has taken only MDMA are, in general, less than 10% those of the parent drug.
MDA constitutes part of the core structure of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist protokylol.
MDA was first synthesized by C. Mannich and W. Jacobsohn in 1910. It was first ingested in July 1930 by Gordon Alles who later licensed the drug to Smith, Kline & French. MDA was first used in animal tests in 1939, and human trials began in 1941 in the exploration of possible therapies for Parkinson's disease. From 1949 to 1957, more than 500 human subjects were given MDA in an investigation of its potential use as an antidepressant and/or anorectic by Smith, Kline & French. The United States Army also experimented with the drug, code named EA-1298, while working to develop a truth drug or incapacitating agent. Harold Blauer died in January 1953 after being intravenously injected, without his knowledge or consent, with 450 mg of the drug as part of Project MKUltra. MDA was patented as an ataractic by Smith, Kline & French in 1960, and as an anorectic under the trade name "Amphedoxamine" in 1961. MDA began to appear on the recreational drug scene around 1963 to 1964. It was then inexpensive and readily available as a research chemical from several scientific supply houses. Several researchers, including Claudio Naranjo and Richard Yensen, have explored MDA in the field of psychotherapy.
When MDA was under development as a potential pharmaceutical drug, it was given the international nonproprietary name (INN) of tenamfetamine.
MDA is schedule 9 prohibited substance under the Poisons Standards. A schedule 9 substance is listed as a "Substances which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities."
MDA is a Schedule I controlled substance in the US.
In 2010, the ability of MDA to invoke mystical experiences and alter vision in healthy volunteers was studied. The study concluded that MDA is a "potential tool to investigate mystical experiences and visual perception".
Common or street names: Adam, Beans, Clarity, Disco Biscuit, E, Ecstasy, Eve, Go, Hug Drug, Lover’s Speed, Molly, Peace, STP, X, and XTC
MDMA (3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug with a chemical structure similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. It commonly referred to as Ecstasy or Molly by users.
MDMA is an illegal drug that acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic, producing an energizing effect, as well as distortions in time and perception and enhanced enjoyment from tactile experiences. MDMA is a Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act, which means that the DEA has determined that it has no medical benefit and a high potential for abuse.
MDMA was first synthesized by a German company in 1912, possibly to be used as an appetite suppressant. It has been available as a street drug since the 1980s, and use escalated in the 1990s among college students and young adults. Then, it was most often distributed at late-night parties called "raves", nightclubs, and rock concerts.
As the rave and club scene expanded to metropolitan and suburban areas across the country, MDMA use and distribution increased as well. MDMA is frequently used in combination with other drugs. Today, the drug is still used by a broader group of people who more commonly call it Ecstasy or Molly.
See also: Ecstasy
MDMA is most often available in tablet or capsule form and is usually ingested by mouth or crushed and snorted.
Ecstasy traffickers consistently use brand names, colors and logos as marketing tools and to distinguish their product from that of competitors. The logos may be produced to coincide with holidays or special events. Among the more popular logos are butterflies, lightning bolts, and four-leaf clovers.
It is also available as a powder and is sometimes snorted, taken as a liquid, and it is occasionally smoked but rarely injected. The drug’s effects generally last from 3 to 6 hours.
Users may take several tablets at once or in succession over a period of time. Abusers may also use in conjunction with other psychoactive drugs like LSD. As with many other "party drugs", ecstasy is rarely used alone and it is frequently combined with alcohol and marijuana.
MDMA stimulates the release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, from brain neurons producing a high that lasts from 3 to 6 hours, but the length of a high is variable based on the user. The drug's rewarding effects vary with the individual taking it, the dose taken, purity of the MDMA, and the environment in which it is taken.
MDMA can produce stimulant effects such as an enhanced sense of pleasure and self-confidence and increased energy. Its psychedelic effects include feelings of peacefulness, acceptance, and empathy.
MDMA exerts its primary effects in the brain on neurons that use the chemicals serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine to communicate with other neurons.
Serotonin is most likely responsible for the feelings of empathy, elevated mood, and emotional closeness experienced with this drug. Overall, these neurotransmitter systems play an important role in regulating:
Research in animals indicates that MDMA is neurotoxic and may affect the brain. Clinical studies suggest that MDMA may increase the risk of long-term or permanent problems with memory and learning.
Shorter-term health effects include:
Also, there is evidence that people who develop a rash that looks like acne after using this drug may be at risk of severe side effects, including liver damage, if they continue to use the drug.
Because use promotes trust, closeness, empathy, and enhances sexual desire, the risk of unsafe sexual practices may increase, resulting in HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, or other sexually transmitted diseases.
Damage to brain serotonin neurons can occur; serotonin is thought to play a role in regulating mood, memory, sleep, and appetite. Studies are conflicting on MDMA use and its affects on memory and cognition.
Research results are controversial on whether MDMA can be addictive. Some people do report signs and symptoms of addiction. Almost 60% of people who use Ecstasy report some withdrawal symptoms, including fatigue, loss of appetite, depressed feelings, and trouble concentrating.
Users may encounter problems similar to those experienced by amphetamine and cocaine users, including addiction. Research has shown that animals will self-administer MDMA, an indicator of a drug's abuse potential.
Some people who use MDMA do report symptoms of addiction, including continued use despite negative consequences, tolerance, withdrawal, and craving, according to the NIH.
After moderate use of the drug over one week, psychological and physical effects due to withdrawal may include:
MDMA-related fatalities at raves have been reported. The stimulant effects of the drug, which enable the user to dance for extended periods, combined with the hot, crowded conditions usually found at raves can lead to dehydration, hyperthermia (dangerous increase in body temperature), and heart or kidney failure.
Repeated use within a short timeframe can be dangerous because the drug cannot be adequately removed from the body.
Other drugs chemically similar to Ecstasy, such as MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine, the parent drug of Ecstasy) and PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine) have been associated with fatalities in the U.S. and Australia and are sometimes sold as Ecstasy. These drugs can be toxic to the brain or create additional health risks to the user.
Additionally, the illegal sale of Ecstasy or Molly makes it prone to being “cut” with other illicit and potentially toxic or deadly chemicals. Ecstasy or Molly may contain other substances in addition to MDMA, including:
While the combination of Ecstasy with one or more of these drugs may be inherently dangerous, users might also voluntarily combine them with substances, such as marijuana, alcohol, or opioids, putting themselves at further risk of physical harm, overdose, or death.
In addition, fentanyl has been increasingly found cut into other street drugs, often unknown by the user and leading to fatalities.
There are no specific treatments for MDMA addiction. Therapy is typically directed by a substance use clinic or health care provider and involve supportive care and behavioral and group therapy.
If you need help with a drug addiction concern, you can call the SAMHSA Treatment Locator at 1-800-662-HELP (1-800-662-4357), a confidential and anonymous source of information available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
The DEA considers MDMA an illegal schedule I drug with no recognized medical uses.
Researchers are looking at MDMA use as a possible treatment for:
Recently, the FDA designated MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD as a Breakthrough Therapy and ongoing MDMA studies can be found on clinicaltrials.gov.
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