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Why sdg 11 is important?

5 Answer(s) Available
Answer # 1 #

Sustainable Development Goal 11 (SDG 11 or Global Goal 11), titled "sustainable cities and communities", is one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. The official mission of SDG 11 is to "Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable". The 17 SDGs take into account that action in one area will affect outcomes in other areas as well, and that development must balance social, economic and environmental sustainability.

SDG 11 has 10 targets to be achieved, and this is being measured with 15 indicators. The seven outcome targets include safe and affordable housing, affordable and sustainable transport systems, inclusive and sustainable urbanization, protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage, reduction of the adverse effects of natural disasters, reduction of the environmental impacts of cities and to provide access to safe and inclusive green and public spaces. The three means of implementation targets include strong national and regional development planning, implementing policies for inclusion, resource efficiency, and disaster risk reduction in supporting the least developed countries in sustainable and resilient building.

3.9 billion people—half of the world’s population—currently live in cities globally. It is projected that 5 billion people will live in cities by 2030. Cities across the world occupy just 3 percent of the Earth's land, yet account for 60–80 percent of energy consumption and 75 percent of carbon emissions. There are serious challenges for the viability and safety of cities to meet increased future demands.

SDG 11 addresses slums, human settlement management and planning, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and urban economies. Prior to the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, Millennium Development Goal 7, target 4, called for efforts to achieve a "significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers" by 2020.

There has been a rapid growth of mega-cities, especially in the developing world: "In 1990, there were ten mega-cities with 10 million inhabitants or more, and in 2014, there were 28 mega-cities, home to a total of 453 million people". With regards to slums, data shows that "828 million people live in slums today and most them are found in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia".

SDG 11 represents "a shift in international development cooperation from a focus on poverty as a rural phenomenon to recognizing that cities, especially in the global south, are facing major challenges with extreme poverty, environmental degradation and risks due to climate change and natural disasters".

The UN has defined 10 targets and 15 indicators for SDG 11. Targets specify the goals, and indicators represent the metrics by which the world aims to track whether these targets are achieved. Six of them are to be achieved by the year 2030 and one by the year 2020 and three have no target years. Each of the targets also has one or two indicators which will be used to measure progress.

The full title of Target 11.1 is "By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums".

This target has one Indicator: Indicator 11.1.1 is the "Proportion of the urban population living in slum households".

People who live in slums have no access to improved water, access to improved sanitation, sufficient living area, and durable housing.

There are currently (in 2022) about 1 billion people living in urban slums.

The full text of Target 11.2 is "By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons".

This target has one Indicator: Indicator 11.2.1 is the "Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and Persons With Disabilities". Improving transport systems to refine the use of accessibility is key because due to physical or mental disabilities, impaired sight or hearing, carrying heavy bags or traveling with small children, as this causes an average of 25% of the population to experience a degree of reduced mobility.

A sustainable transportation system considers different socioeconomic groups' travel concerns to achieve the validity of accessibility metrics. Transportation and transportation planning should be coordinated with land use planning. Employment and residential areas are relatively concentrated, and urban and suburban settings should be planned and reconstructed in concert.

The full-text Target 11.3 is "By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries".

The target has two indicators:

Indicator 11.3.2 may be challenging to calculate. There is currently no data available for this indicator.

The full text of Target 11.4 is "Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world's cultural and natural heritage."

It has one indicator: Indicator 11.4.1 is the "Total per capita expenditure on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by the source of funding (public, private), type of heritage (cultural, natural) and level of government (national, regional, and local/municipal)".

This indicator is difficult to calculate. There are currently no data available for this indicator.

Due to civil wars, more than half of the In Danger WHSs are located in war zones in Afghanistan, Congo, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Palestine, Syria, and Yemen. The modern era sees never-ending civil wars in several developing countries, acts of vandalism at cultural sites committed by terrorists and warlords, threats to destroy Iranian cultural heritage sites by former US President Donald Trump, a change of identity of a WHS (Hagia Sophia) by the Turkish government, deforestation, rapid climate change, out-of-control urbanization, and tourism mismanagement by governments which leads to overtourism and hyper-exploitation of tourism resources. Because these problems exist, this target has become more prominent than ever.

The full text of Target 11.5 is "By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations".

Indicators are:

The full text of Target 11.6 is "By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management."

The target has two indicators:

The full text of Target 11.7 is: "By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and Persons With Disabilities"

The two indicators include:

The full text of Target 11.a is "Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning".

It has one indicator: Indicator 11.a.1 is the "Number of countries that have national urban policies or regional development plans that (a) respond to population dynamics; (b) ensure balanced territorial development, and (c) increase local fiscal space."

This indicator is "one of the key metrics to benchmark and monitor urbanization". However, there is currently no data available for this indicator.

The New Urban Agenda was adopted by world leaders in 2016 and provides a series of standards for sustainable urban development.

The full text of Target 11.b is "By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster risk reduction 2015–2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels."

Unlike most SDGs which have the target year of 2030, this indicator is set to be achieved by 2020.

The two indicators include:

A number of challenges in implementing the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction have been identified, including inconsistent, unstructured, disorganized data collection and reporting, the lack of incentives for proactive report disaster loss, and the lack of governmental mandate on disaster loss reporting.

The full text of Target 11.c is formulated as "Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings using local materials".

This target has one Indicator: Indicator 11.c.1 is the "Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource-efficient buildings using local materials".

It was suggested in 2020 to delete Indicator 11.c.1.

The custodian agencies are responsible for data gathering and reporting on the indicators:

High-level progress reports are prepared by United Nations Secretary General annually, evaluating the progress towards all the Sustainable Development Goals. The most recent report was published in 2021. The previous report was from April 2020.

In 2018, High-level Political Forum (HLPF) took stock of progress on the Sustainable Development Goals and discussed progress, successes, challenges and lessons learned on the road to a fairer, more peaceful and prosperous world and a healthy planet by 2030. SDG 11 was one of the six SDGs discussed in depth.

The progress on the SDG 11 has been stalled by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic, this Goal is increasingly less likely to be achieved in a timely manner.

All the UN member states are committed to following up their progress towards implementing the 2030 Agenda and its goals and targets. Almost all the UN member states have presented their national progress towards the SDGs through Voluntary National Review (VNR). Despite the importance of cities within the sustainable development framework, only a few initiatives have emerged to assess progress towards the SDGs on a city scale.

Cities in many countries were epicentres of COVID-19. Approximately 60% of COVID-19 cases have been found in urban areas, shedding light onto the function of cities in generating and accelerating the pandemic. Both congestion and increased mobility in cities have been named as some of the major contributors to the spread of epidemics through aerosols, droplets and fomities.

The COVID-19 pandemic has illuminated the deeply rooted inequalities in the cities, which is reflected in disproportionate pandemic-related impacts on migrants, the homeless, and the residents of urban slums and informal settlements. The success of SDG 11 post-pandemic requires concerted action on the part of Governments at all levels, civil society and development partners.

During the crisis, cities have emerged as drivers of economic recovery, centres of innovation and catalysts for social and economic transformation. Smart city technologies and solutions have contributed to resilience in cities by facilitating gathering and exchange of information in real time, decreasing risk, and enhancing planning, absorption and adaptation abilities.

SDG 11 interlinks with many of the other SDGs. First, the impact on health (SDG 3, Target 3.9) of city dwellers, as well as improve cities resilience to natural and climate change-induced disasters. It is related to SDG 6 (target 6.1, 6.2 and 6.5), SDG 12 (target 12.4), SDG 14 (target 14.3) Lastly, reducing the impact of communicable diseases and maternal and children mortality which can be found under SDG 3 (targets 3.2 and 3.3).

Furthermore, SDG 11 interlinks with SDG 13 on climate action: The world's cities account for 60–80 per cent of energy consumption and 75 per cent of carbon emissions (this is because 4.2 billion people, or 55 percent of the world's population, lived in cities in 2018).

The following NGOs and other organizations are helping to achieve SDG 11:

The Canadian federal government has allotted $10 billion CAD over 3 years to the Canadian Infrastructure Bank to begin investing in green projects across the country focusing on areas such as transit, renewable energy, and building retrofits. The federal government is meeting its SDG 11.2 and SDG 11a targets by investing $1.5 billion in public transit and having 5000 busses in the next 5 years within a wider uplifting growth strategy to refocus the inequalities faced by different urban and rural regions in Canada. The federal government has also seen a slight rise in the proportion of the urban population that lives in inadequate housing, rising from 12.5% in 2011 to 12.7% in 2016, moving away from lowering the goal of adequate housing.

Adelaide Buysse
Locomotive Superintendent
Answer # 2 #
  • Ensure universal access to quality housing.
  • Ensure universal access to quality transport.
  • Ensure inclusive and sustainable urbanisation, planning and management.
  • Protect and safeguard cultural and natural heritage.
  • Reduce human impacts of disasters.
  • Reduce environmental impact of cities.
Brydon Loret
Answer # 3 #

While European cities and communities provide opportunities for employment, and economic and cultural activity, many inhabitants still face considerable social challenges and inequalities. Problems affecting the quality of housing and the wider residential area, such as noise disturbance, crime and vandalism, are some of the most visible challenges that cities and communities can face and that impact quality of life.

Quality of housing in the EU has improved since 2010

Safe and adequate homes are a foundation for living an independent, healthy and fulfilling life. Poor housing conditions, on the other hand, are associated with lower life chances, health inequalities, increased risks of poverty and environmental hazards.

The severe housing deprivation rate refers to the share of the population living in an overcrowded household while also experiencing types of housing deprivation such as a leaking roof, damp walls, floors or foundations; rot in window frames or floors; lacking sanitary facilities; or a dwelling that is considered too dark. Between 2010 and 2020, the share of EU residents who lived in such conditions fell by 1.8 percentage points, which indicates an improvement in the perceived quality of the EU’s housing stock.

Europeans perceive their residential areas as quieter and safer

Noise disturbance can cause annoyance, stress, sleep deprivation, poor mental health and wellbeing, as well as harm to the cardiovascular and metabolic system . Likewise, crime and vandalism can also reduce quality of life and housing satisfaction in a residential area. In 2020, 17.6 % of the EU population (about 78 million people) said their household suffered from noise disturbance, compared with 20.6 % in 2010 . Crime, violence and vandalism in the neighbourhood were perceived by 10.7 % of the EU population in 2020, compared with 13.1 % in 2010.

The EU’s zero pollution action plan aims to reduce the share of people chronically disturbed by transport noise by 30 % by 2030 compared with 2017. At 55 decibels (dB) noise levels can start to have critical effects, ranging from severe annoyance and sleep disturbance to hearing impairment . The more recent WHO guidelines for Europe are even more stringent, recommending that the noise level from road traffic should be below 53 dB during the day and below 45 dB at night. Despite improvements in perceived exposure to noise, 95 million people in the EU were estimated to be exposed to road traffic noise at levels of 55 dB or higher on an annual average for day, evening and night in 2017. While railways and airports represent further significant sources of local noise pollution, their impact on the overall population is much lower. The number of people exposed to harmful noise levels has not decreased significantly since 2012 . A recent outlook from the European Environment Agency (EEA) suggests that meeting the 30 % reduction target of the zero pollution action plan will be challenging, with the most optimistic scenario only estimating a 19 % reduction.

Exposure to fine particular matter in the EU leads to premature deaths

Pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5) suspended in the air reduce people’s life expectancy, and can lead to or aggravate many chronic and acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases . Exposure to air pollution is of particular concern in cities, as they contain both a large number of potential emission sources (due to the concentration of economic activities) and large number of people being affected by air pollutants (due to the high population density).

According to data from the EEA, in 2020 almost all EU Member States registered annual mean PM2.5 concentrations below the EU limit value of 25 μg/m3 . This effect is partly due to lockdown measures introduced by most governments during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, when considering the more stringent 2021 WHO air quality guideline of 5 μg/m3, almost all EU city dwellers (96 %) were estimated to be exposed to PM2.5 concentration levels deemed harmful to human health. The European Commission has proposed aligning EU ambient air quality standards more closely with WHO recommendations, and improving air quality monitoring, modelling and plans.

In the EU, long-term exposure to fine particulate matter was responsible for around 238 000 premature deaths in 2020. Since 2005, the number of premature deaths has already fallen by around 45 %, and the EU thus appears on track to meeting the zero pollution action plan target for 2030 which aims to reduce the number of premature deaths due to fine particulate matter exposure by more than 55 % compared with 2005 . However, achieving the zero pollution target would require Member States to successfully implement current and planned policies, including the climate and energy targets put in place by the EU for 2030 .

City dwellers experience more noise pollution and crime

Statistics on the degree of urbanization provide an analytical and descriptive lens through which to view urban and rural communities. Based on the share of the local population living in urban clusters and urban centres, Eurostat differentiates between three types of area: ‘cities’, ‘towns and suburbs’ and ‘rural areas’ .

The severe housing deprivation rate in the EU in 2020 was higher in rural areas (4.9 %) than in cities (4.8 %) and in towns and suburbs (3.4 %) . The perceived level of noise pollution varies greatly depending on the degree of urbanisation. In 2020, people living in EU cities were more likely to report noise from neighbours or from the street (23.9 %) compared with those living in towns and suburbs (16.3 %) or in rural areas (10.5 %) . Similarly, the perceived occurrence of crime and vandalism in cities (16.3 %) was almost three times higher than in rural areas (5.8 %) and above the level observed in towns and suburbs (8.4 %) in 2020 .

Only two-thirds of the EU’s urban population can enjoy green urban spaces within walking distance

Green spaces in cities have a great potential to boost human health and well-being, and play a crucial role for children, the elderly and those with lower incomes, who may otherwise have limited access to nature. Universal accessibility to these green spaces that are safe, inclusive and open is thus essential. In the EU, 66.7 % of the urban centre population had access to green urban areas within a 400 metres walk in 2018. This share has remained stable since 2012. When considering green urban areas that are at least one hectare large, only 56.3 % of the urban centre population had access within a 400-metre walk in 2018. Among the EU Member States, Finland held the largest share of urban population with access to a green space within walking distance (93.9 %) in 2018, while Cyprus had the lowest (26.1 %) .

A functioning transport system is necessary for people to reach their places of work, education, services and social activities, all of which affect quality of life and equal opportunities for everyone. In addition to availability, the type, quality and safety of transport systems are also crucial when designing sustainable and inclusive cities and communities.

Use of public transport modes dropped considerably during the pandemic

The EU aims to improve citizens’ quality of life and to strengthen the economy by promoting sustainable urban mobility and greater use of clean and energy-efficient vehicles, together with reducing the demand for individual car transport. Public transport networks help to relieve traffic jams, reduce harmful pollution and offer more affordable and sustainable ways to commute to work, access services and travel for leisure.

Since 2000, the share of buses and trains in inland passenger transport has stagnated well below 20 %, accounting for only 17.5 % in 2019. With the onset of the pandemic in 2020, this share fell drastically by 4.7 percentage points compared with 2019, to 12.8 %. The precautionary measures put in place, including domestic and international travel restrictions, quarantine restrictions, introduction of remote-working policies and changing mobility habits led to a reduction in the use of public transport  and passengers’ perceptions about safety and comfort. Consequently, the share of private mobility, including cycling, walking and private cars has increased. This decline in the shares of public modes of mobility is also reflected in the long- and short-term trends, showing a reduction by 4.6 percentage points since 2005 and by 4.8 percentage points since 2015.

Cars continue to remain the dominant form of passenger mobility in the EU. The decline in the use of public transport in 2020 coincides with an increase in the share of passenger kilometres travelled by car, which rose from 82.5 % in 2019 to 87.2 % . According to an EU-wide survey on passenger mobility carried out in 2021, 64 % of the respondents reported that their travel behaviour was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent of the recovery of public transport modes relative to private ones — especially cars — thus remains to be seen for 2022 and beyond.

Deaths from road crashes have fallen, but greater progress will be necessary to meet the 2030 target

Road traffic injuries are a public health issue and have a huge economic cost. About 120 000 people are estimated to be seriously injured in road accidents in the EU each year . In 2021, about 55 people a day lost their lives on EU roads. This corresponds to slightly more than 19 900 people for the entire year — a loss equivalent to the size of a medium town. Nevertheless, the EU has made considerable progress in this respect compared with 2002 and 2010, when road deaths amounted to about 50 000 and 30 000, respectively. In recent years, the figures have experienced some fluctuations, in part explained by significant changes in traffic volumes as a result of to the COVID-19 pandemic. Between 2020 and 2021, road traffic deaths increased by 6 % following an unprecedented fall of 18 % between 2019 and 2020. The most recent figures, based on preliminary data for 2022, show the number of road deaths were 10 % lower than in relation to 2019. However, while the underlying trend in relation to the pre-pandemic level continues to be downward, the EU as a whole is not on track to meet its 2030 target of halving the total death toll on EU roads compared with 2019.

The highest share of road-traffic fatalities in 2021 was recorded on non-motorway roads outside urban areas (52 %), followed by roads inside urban areas (39 %) and motorways (9 %) . While the overall number of fatalities fell by 23.1 % between 2010 and 2019, the number of cyclists killed in urban areas actually increased by 3.1 % . Indeed, EU-wide, almost 70 % of fatalities in urban areas involve vulnerable road users such as pedestrians, motorcyclists and cyclists. This is therefore a key area when it comes to introducing new policy measures to tackle road safety.

While cities, towns and suburbs are a focal point for social and economic activity, if not managed sustainably, they risk causing considerable environmental damage. At the same time, large and densely populated cities provide opportunities for effective environmental action, indicating that urbanisation is not necessarily a threat but can act as a transformative force for more sustainable societies . EU progress in reducing the environmental impacts of cities and communities is monitored by three indicators looking into the management of municipal waste, waste water treatment and artificial land cover.

The settlement area per capita has increased

Offering numerous cultural, educational and job opportunities, an urban lifestyle is attractive to many people. However, growth in the urban population has also come with increased land take. Land take is described as the process of transforming agricultural, forest and other semi-natural and natural areas into artificial areas. It often means growth in the settlement area over time, usually at the expense of rural areas. As a result of land take, urban areas may severely hamper the functioning of ecosystems and the related delivery of ecosystem services .

The settlement area indicator captures the amount of settlement area due to land-take. In the EU, settlement area per capita has increased over the past few years. In 2018, for each EU inhabitant, 703.4 square metres (m2) of land was covered by settlement area (comprising both sealed and non-sealed surfaces — for example, buildings, industrial and commercial area, infrastructure as well as also parks and sportsgrounds), which is 3.3 % more than in 2015.

Despite continuous improvements in municipal waste recycling, the EU might miss its targets

The ‘waste hierarchy’ is the overarching logic that guides EU waste policy. It prioritises waste prevention, followed by preparing for reuse, recycling, other recovery and finally disposal, including landfilling, as the last resort. Waste management activities promote recycling, which reduces the amount of waste going to landfills and leads to higher resource efficiency. Although municipal waste accounts for less than 10 % of the weight of total waste generated in the EU , it is highly visible and closely linked to consumption patterns. Sustainable management of this waste stream reduces the adverse environmental impact of cities and communities, which is why the EU has set a target to recycle or prepare for reuse at least 60 % of its municipal waste by 2030 .

In 2021, the EU residents generated 236 801 thousand tonnes of municipal waste, corresponding to 530 kilograms (kg) of waste per capita per year . Since 2016, the annual amount of waste generated per capita increased by 37 kg, which represents an increase of 7.5 % between 2016 and 2021. Although the EU has not reduced its municipal waste generation, it has clearly shifted to more recycling. Since 2000, the recycling rate of municipal waste — covering both recycling and preparing for re-use — has increased continuously from 27.3 % to 49.6 % in 2021. However, the trend has slowed since 2016, with the share of recycled municipal waste increasing by only 3.7 percentage points between 2016 and 2021. Further efforts are therefore needed to put the EU back on track towards meeting its recycling targets by 2030.

Connection rates to waste water treatment have been increasing

Urban areas also place significant pressure on the water environment through waste water from households and industry that contains organic matter, nutrients and hazardous substances. The share of the EU population connected to at least secondary waste water treatment plants, which decompose most of the organic material and retain some of the nutrients, has been steadily growing since 2000 and reached 81.1 % in 2020. In seven Member States, more than 90 % of the population were connected to such services according to most recent data (which refer to 2015, 2019 or 2020, depending on the country). However, it may not be suitable to connect 100 % of the population to a sewerage collection system, either because it would produce no environmental benefit or would be too costly (see article on SDG 6 ‘Clean water and sanitation’).

Donnell Abramowicz
Chief Marketing Officer
Answer # 4 #

SDG11 targets the development of inclusive, sustainable, and resilient urban environments. This includes access to adequate and affordable housing, transport, and other basic services, improving air quality and waste management, and limiting the impact of natural disasters, particularly on the most vulnerable.

By 2030, 60% of the world’s population is expected to live in cities, while cities already account for 60% of global GDP. They are also hubs of creativity, culture, commerce, knowledge, productivity, social mobility, and more. But urbanisation also brings challenges. Although cities occupy only 3% of the Earth’s land, they use 60%-80% of the world’s energy and are responsible for 70% of the world’s carbon emissions.

Waste disposal is also an ongoing issue, with two billion people lacking access to waste collection services and three billion to controlled waste disposal facilities. Meanwhile, in 2016, 90% of urban dwellers were still exposed to air that did not meet the World Health Organization’s air quality guidelines for particulate matter. In addition, the speed of urban migration in search of employment has led to many being forced to live in inappropriate dwelling: 1 billion people live in slums and this number is rising.

Many cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and natural disasters. Building resilient cities is therefore key to social and economic development.

The cement and concrete sector lies (literally) at the foundation of modern cities. From the buildings that define the urban skyline, to the everyday services that enable city living, urbanisation would not be possible without concrete. Concrete is therefore at the heart of efforts to improve the sustainability and resilience of the urban environment: concrete can, for example, reduce urban heat island effect (vs other dark materials and coatings) and absorb CO2 (for more, see our list of 20 sustainability values of concrete for buildings and communities). It is also fundamental to the provision of resilient affordable housing for vulnerable urban communities (SDG11.1).

Importantly, concrete is also better able to survive climate-related and natural disasters than other building materials (SDG11.b), providing crucial resilience to critical infrastructure – from water and sanitation to housing and transportation – and the urban communities that rely on it. Strong transportation links are also a key element in achieving SDG11.a, which calls for the development of positive economic, social, and environmental links between urban, peri-urban, and rural areas.

In an increasing number of locations, the cement and concrete sector is supporting the sustainable management of municipal waste through co-processing refuse-derived fuels in the cement kiln (a process that also reduces the carbon intensity of cement and is a key strategy in the production of carbon-neutral concrete). The industry also acknowledges the potential impact of its activities on urban air quality and has long taken action to mitigate this. As part of the GCCA Sustainability Charter, GCCA members are committed to reducing airborne emissions and monitoring and reporting their performance against key performance indicators on an annual basis.

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Eunice zoklafka
Answer # 5 #

SDG 11 aims to renew and plan cities and other human settlements in a way that offers opportunities for all, with access to basic services, energy, housing, transportation and green public spaces, while reducing resource use and environmental impact.

kksxsb Gossage